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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2013)
Species Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
PlaceOfPublication Enum. 1: 206. 1804.-FIG. 5.
Synonym Verbena jamaicensis L., Sp. PI. 19. 175-3. Zapania jamaicensis (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. Me'th. Bot. 1: 59. 1791. Vermicularia dlecurrens Moench, Suppl. Methl. PI. 15,0. 1802. Stachytarpheta marginata Vahl, Enum. 1: 207. 1804. Stachytarpheta pilosiuscula H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. PI., ed. folio. 2: 226. 1817. Stachytarpheta mexicana Steud., Nom. Bot. Phan., ed. 1. 873. 1821, nom. nud. Stachytarpheta bogoriensis Zoll. & Mor. in Mor., Syst. Verz. Zoll. 52. 1845-1846. Valerianodes jamaicense (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 509. 1891. Abena jamaicensis (L.) A. S. Hitchc., Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 117. 1893. Stachytarpheta surinamensis Miq. ex Pulle, Enum. PI. Surinamn. 402. 1905. Stachytarpheta friedrichsthalii Hayek, Feddes Repert. 3: 272. 1907. Stachytarpheta indlica var. jamaicensis (L.) Razi, Jour. Mysore Univ. 7(4): 63. 1946.
Description Herbs, 6-12 dm high, shiny, often purplish throughout, sparingly pubescent or glabrate throughout, sometimes slightly woody basally; stems and branches dichotomous, subtetragonal, usually glabrate except for the lanuginous-pilose nodes. Leaves alternate or opposite, rather fleshy when fresh, thin-chartaceous or membranous in drying, oblong to oval or ovate (rarely rounded), 2-8 cm long and 1.2-5 cm wide, obtuse or acute apically, coarsely serrate along the margins with acute and spreading or appressed teeth and more or less ciliate-scabrous, cuneate-narrowed basally and prolonged into the margined petiole, which is as long as the blade or shorter, glabrous on both surfaces or slightly pilosulous on the veins beneath, not usually blackening in drying. Spikes terete, stout, stiff, often flexuous, 1.5-5 dm long, glabrous throughout; rachis conspicuously incras- sate, the deep furrows much narrower than the rachis itself, especially at maturity. Flowers at first erect, later immersed in the thickened rachis; bracts medium-size or comparatively small, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5-8 mm long and ca. 2 mm wide, aristate-acuminate apically, striate, scabridous, the margins scarious and obscurely ciliolate; calyx compressed, ca. 5 mm long or about as long as the subtending bract, the rim bifid, the teeth triangular or triangular-ovate, com- pletely immersed in the furrows of the rachis in fruit; corolla hypocrateriform, blue or violet to purple, 8-11 mm long, the tube slightly curved, the limb ca. 8 mm wide; style included.
Habit Herbs
Distribution The species is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical America from Alabama through the West Indies, Mexico, and Central America to Ecuador and Brazil; introduced in parts of tropical Africa, Madagascar, the islands of the Indian Ocean, tropical Asia, Australasia, and Oceania.
Note The juice of the leaves, roots, or the entire plant is used in many countries as a tonic, emetic, expectorant, sudorific, cathartic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, stimulant, antihepatic, purgative, depurative, emolient, and cooling agent. Stachy- tarpheta jamaicensis is used locally in various parts of its range in the treatment of headaches, earaches, malaria, tertian fever, yellow fever, amenorrhea, gonor- rhea, diarrhea, syphilis, erysipelas, dropsy, jaundice, contusions and wounds caused by blows, liver troubles, stomach affections, ulcers, intestinal worms, and nervous pains.
Common berbena blue porter-weed
Common gervao Jamaica vervain
Common rinchdo verbena azuil
Common verbena cimarrona verbena manza
Common verbena morada
Note Medicinal herb (fide Kirkbride & Bristan 1583); "roots and/or leaves used alone or taken with alacran for liver problems either taken as a bath or as a tea" (fide Duke 10938).
Specimen BOCAS DEL TORO: Bocas del Toro, Carlton 144 (NY, US). Edge of river and railways and adjacent rainforest, Changuinola to 5 mi. S at junction of Rio Changuinola and Rio Teribe, 100- 200 ft, Lewis et al. 908 (MO, US). Bar Mouth, Changuinola Valley, Dunlap 514 (F, US). Rainforest by river, Chiriquicito to 5 mi. S along Rio Guarumo, Lewis et al. 1963 (MO). Isla Colon, vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, von Wedel 2852 (MO, NY). River bank and beach, Santa Catalina, Blackwell et al. 2707 (LL). Water Valley, von Wedel 625 (MO). CANAL ZONE: Aspinwall, Hayes, June 1861 (BM). Barro Colorado Island, clearing of French Canal, 1 mi. N of laboratory, Chickering 20 (MICH). Shore at French Lock site, Woodworth & Vestal 739 (BARRO, F). Gross Point, Aviles 898 (F). Orchid Island, Kenoyer 507, in part (US). Cerro Gordo, near Culebra, 50-290 m, Pittier 2155 (NY, US). Chagres, Fendler 219 (F, US). Beach ca. 0.5 mi. inland from mouth of Chagres River, Burch et al. 1014 (MO). Common, brushy field, near Fort Randolph, Standley 28756 (US). Fort Sherman, Tyson & Blum 1650 (MO); on beach, roadside, Porter et al. 4983 (LL). In clays of disturbed area, open beach, Toro Point, Duke 4327 (UC). U. S. Army Tropic Test Center, Dwyer 7194 (MO). Vicinity of Fort Sher- man, common, thicket along beach, Standley 31140 (US); common, sand along beach, Standley 31198 (US). Rainforest by road, NW shore of Gatun Lake, ca. 4 mi. S of Rio Chagres, Lewis et al. 1822 (MO). Monkey Hill and vicinity, Cowell 18 (NY). Near Old Fort San Lorenzo, Piper 5981 (US). CHIRIQUI: Vicinity of Boquete, 1200-1500 m, Woodson & Schery 768 (MO, NY). Second growth, cultivated areas, and roadsides, from Boquete to 3 mi. N, 3300-4200 ft, Lewis et al. 571 (MO). Vicinity of San Bartholome, Peninsula de Burica, Woodson & Schery 927 (NY). COLON: Vicinity of Camp Pifia, 25 m, Allen 3673 (MO, NY, S). Colon, Lehmann 1009 (BM). Marla Chiquita, common near bank of beach, thickets near beach, Dwyer & Kirk- bride 7789 (MO). Along shore of beach, Ebinger 437 (MO). Beach and adjacent roadsides, Nuevo Chagres, Lewis et al. 1863 (MO). On sandy beach, Pifia, Moldenke 1227 (AAU, LL). 1228 (AAU). Roadside, road to Pifia, Hayden 320 (MO, NY). Waste ground, open grounds, and swampy meadows around Portobelo, 0-20 m, Pittier 2465 (US). Beach and adjacent area, S of Rio Piedras, Lewis et al. 3165 (LL). DARIEN: Village of Mannene, Kirkbride & Bristan 1583 (MO). Vicinity of Vera Cruz, Duke 6066 (AAU). LOS SANTOS: Beach atMonagre, Burch et al. 1207 (MO). PANAMA: Rocky beach, Chimaln, Lewis et al. 3316 (AAU). San Miguel Island, Duke 10938 (MO). Taboga Island, Pittier 3617 (US); on loose trial slopes, Macbride 2812 (F, MO, US); ca. 0-186 m, Woodson et al. 1448 (NY). Beach and sandy areas behind, Vera Cruz, Lewis et al. 3020 (LL). SAN BLAS: Common, airport at Irandi, Duke 6501 (MO). Suskatupu Island, 0-150 ft, Elias 1685 (MO).
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