Home Central American Mosses
Name Search
Family List
Generic List
Species List
!Didymodon ferrugineus (Schimp. ex Besch.) M.O. Hill Search in The Plant ListSearch in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in Muséum national d'Histoire naturelleSearch in Type Specimen Register of the U.S. National HerbariumSearch in Virtual Herbaria AustriaSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical GardenAfrican Plants, Senckenberg Photo GallerySearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: Journal of Bryology 11: 599. 1981[1982]. (J. Bryol.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 2/15/2011)

Didymodon ferrugineus, D. laevigatus, and D. hampei are the Central American species of Didymodon with elongate cells on the upper ventral surface of the costa. This feature in D. ferrugineus is difficult to see because its leaves are so strongly keeled they do not lie flat. Didymodon laevigatus is similar to D. ferrugineus in having a reddish orange color, but differs  in having longer leaves that are spreading when wet and smooth leaf cells. The presence of long-decurrent, reddish orange leaves that are squarrose-recurved when wet, and strongly pluripapillose cells (the papillae at times nearly columnar) separates this species from all other Central American species of Didymodon.

Didymodon ferrugineus and Zygodon campylophyllus have a similar color and strongly squarrose-recurved leaves. Zygodon campylophyllus differs from it in having fragile leaf apices that are irregularly notched and toothed above, 8-ribbed capsules, and a double peristome. In its long-decurrent, squarrose-reflexed leaves that have strongly recurved lower margins and high leaf papillae D. ferrugineus resembles Triquetrella. Triquetrella differs from D. ferrugineus in having three-ranked leaves and usually triangular stems that lack a stem central strand. Triquetrella californica (Lesq.) Grout, however, has non-triangular stems and a stem central strand. Zander (1980) thought their morphologies were nearly impossible to distinguish without the benefit of comparing authentic material; he separated the two species on the basis of their different acid-base color reactions. In 1998, however, he considered T. californica different on the basis of “... its triangular stem (?), upper leaf margins sharply crenulate by projecting papillae ... , and upper medial laminal papillae tall, branching frfrom the base and centered over each lumen.” The oldest (reflexus) as well as the second oldest (recurvifolius) species epithets for this taxon are preoccupied in Didymodon.

Illustrations: Bartram (1949, Fig. 56 A–B); Saito (1975, Fig. 49 1–16); Smith (1978, Fig. 118 8–12); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 156 A–F); Zander (1981, Pl. 4 1–5); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 130 B); Norris and Koponen (1989, Fig. 14 h–k); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 230); Crum and Hall (1995, Figs. 1–5); Abramov and Volkova (1998, Pl. 46 1–8); Ku_era (2000, Fig 7). Figure 22.
Habitat: On calcareous outcrops; 2590–3353 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Huehuetenango: Sharp 5020 (FH). COSTA RICA. Cartago: Holms & Iltis s.n. (US); San José: Holz CR00-202 (GOET, MO).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-Central, Northeastern, Southwestern, South-Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia; Indian Subcontinent; Malesia; Australia, New Zealand.


Export To PDF Export To Word

Didymodon ferrugineus (Schimp. ex Besch.) Hill, J. Bryol. 11: 599. 1981 [1982]

Barbula ferruginea Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 181. 1872. Triquetrella ferruginea (Schimp. ex Besch.) Thér., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 85(4): 9. 1931. Protologue: Mexico. San Cristobal (F. Müller, in herb. Schimp.).

Tortula reflexa Brid., Muscol. Recent. Suppl. 1: 255. 1806. Barbula reflexa (Brid.) Brid., Muscol. Recent. Suppl.4: 93. 1819. Barbula fallax var. reflexa (Brid.) Brid., Bryol. Univ. 1: 558. 1826. Didymodon fallax var. reflexus  (Brid.) Zand., Bryologist 83: 230. 1980. Not Didymodon reflexus Thér., Revista Chilena Hist. Nat. 28: 130. 1924. Protologue: France. In Monte Aureo Auerniae et in Pyrenaeis Orientalibus legi.

Barbula recurvifolia Schimp., Coroll. Bryol. Eur. 141. 1856, non Didymodon recurvifolius (Tayl.) Wils., Bryol. Brit. 110. 1855. Protologue: Germany and Austria. Prope Partenkirchen Bavariae ubi clar. Fr. Arnold Octobri 1851 capsulis immaturis legit; in m. Ofenlochberg prope Salisburgum Novembri 1854 cum capsula una perfecte matura Dr. Wolf invenit (am. Sauter communicavit).

 Barbula rigidicaulis C. Müll., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 4: 255. 1897. Didymodon rigidicaulis (C. Müll.) Saito, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 39: 502. 1975. Protologue: China. China interior, prov. Schen-si septentr., in loco dicto Pou-li, Martio 1895 [Josepho Giraldi ab Emilio Levier].


Plants small-sized, dull, reddish yellow above, red-brown below, in tufts to 13 mm high. Stems red, erect, sparsely branched, sclerodermis and central strand present; rhizoids sparse, at base of stems or scattered throughout. Axillary hairs 3–5 cells long, basal cell brown. Leaves 1–1.5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, spreading at base, crowded or well spaced, erect-appressed when dry, squarrose-recurved when wet, strongly keeled; apices broadly acute to short-acuminate, decurrent; lamina unistratose; margins recurved to revolute below, entire or rarely irregularly toothed above; costa percurrent, surface ventral cells elongate, guide cells present, ventral stereid band absent or poorly developed, dorsal stereid band poorly developed or absent, dorsal surface layer enlarged, densely papillose; upper cells thick-walled, irregularly rounded, oblate, or short-rectangular, 6–10 x 6–8 μm, with high, thick, multiple papillae, basal cells oblate, quadrate, rounded or short-rectangular, thick-walled, papillose, 6–14 x 6–8 μm, decurrent cells long-rectangular, alar cells not differentiated. Dioicous. Sporophytes not known from Central America. Setae 9 mm long. Capsules 1.5 mm long, cylindric; stomata apparently none; opercula slenderly rostrate, erect, 1.3 mm long; annuli narrow (not revoluble); peristome yellow-brown, of 32 short, filiform teeth, densely papillose, basal membrane short. Spores 11–13 μm, more or less smooth (Crum & Anderson 1981).



© 2023 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110