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!Gymnostomiella vernicosa (Hook. ex Harv.) M. Fleisch. Search in The Plant ListSearch in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in Muséum national d'Histoire naturelleSearch in Type Specimen Register of the U.S. National HerbariumSearch in Virtual Herbaria AustriaSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical GardenAfrican Plants, Senckenberg Photo GallerySearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: Die Musci der Flora von Buitenzorg 1: 310. 53. 1904. (Musci Buitenzorg) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Acceptance : Accepted
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Gymnostomiella vernicosa is an extremely small moss with minute, delicate leaves that are distantly spaced on the lower parts of the stems and closely clustered above. The species appears to be restricted to calcareous substrates. In addition to its small size the presence in G. vernicosa of broadly rounded leaves with papillose-crenulate margins and lax, transparent leaf cells that have 2–4 simple, delicate papillae are distinctive features of the species. Other features that aid in its recognition are its eperistomate capsules, lack of both a stem central strand and costal stereid cells, and the presence of dark, reddish brown multicellular gemmae on basal rhizoids, in the leaf axils, and clustered in terminal cups.

Zander (1993, 1994) separated G. orcuttii from G. vernicosa on the basis of leaf cell ornamentation: pluripapillose in G. orcuttii, unipapillose in G. vernicosa. Arts (1998), however, reported that the type of G. vernicosa had some pluripapillose leaf cells, while Fleischer (1904) illustrated the species with a mixture of pluri- and unipapillose leaf cells. Redfearn (1991) found that the upper leaf cells in both taxa varied from “0 to 2–3(–4) per cell.” Arts (1998) did find collections of G. vernicosa with consistently unipapillose leaf cells, and these he segregated as G. vernicosa var. tenera (C. Müll. ex Dus.) Arts.

Illustrations: Fleischer (1904, Fig. 53); Bartram (1928a, Fig. 1 A–F); Crum (1949, Figs. 1–9); Crum and Steere (1957, Fig. 28); Breen (1963, Pl. 32 1–3); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 165 E–Ii); Redfearn (1991, Figs. 1–31); Zander (1993, Pl. 48 1–4, 12–14); Sharp et al (1994, Fig. 287i); Arts (1998, Figs. 5 & 6).
Habitat: On limestone; sea level.
Distribution in Central America: PANAMA. Canal Area: Barsallo et al. 13 (MO, PMA).
World Range: Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western South America, Brazil; Indo-China, Malesia; Australia.


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Gymnostomiella vernicosa (Harv. in Hook.) Fleisch., Musci Buitenzorg 1: 310. 1904.

Gymnostomum vernicosum Harv. in Hook, Icon. Pl. 1: tab. 17, f. 4. 1836. Pottia vernicosa (Harv. in Hook.) Hampe in C. Müll., Syn. Musc. Frond. 1: 557. 1849. Hymenostylium vernicosum (Harv. in Hook.) Mitt., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. Suppl. 1: 33. 1859. Protologue: Burma. Prome, leg. N. Wallich s.n. (isotype E, Arts 1998).

Gymnostomum vernicosum Hook. in Wallich. Numer. List 7549. 1832. nom. nud.

Gymnostomiella orcuttii Bartr.,  Jamaica Naturalist 1: 15. 1928. Protologue: Jamaica. Sherwood Forest, St. Thomas Parish, Jamaica, September 1927, C. R. Orcutt, No 2786, on concrete walls of reservoir near the “Great House.” 

Plants very small, delicate, light-green, in tufts or mats, 1–3 mm high. Stems simple or forked, reddish, surface cells rectangular, central strand absent; rhizoids sparse only at base. Axillary hairs 2-3 cells long, upper 1–2 cells globose, basal cells quadrate, light-brown. Leaves 0.3–0.6 mm long, spathulate, oblong-obovate or elliptic, erect to spreading at base, more or less rosulate, erect and somewhat shriveled when dry, erect-spreading when wet; apices broadly rounded to obtuse; lamina unistratose; margins papillose-crenulate, plane; costa slender, ending well below the apex, often spurred above, upper ventral surface cells elongate, stereid cells absent, cells homogeneous; upper cells irregularly hexagonal, subquadrate to short-rectangular, 10–28 x 10–14 μm, thin-walled, translucent, with 2-4 simple papillae, basal cells  long-rectangular, hyaline, smooth, 20–46 x 12–18 μm, alar cells not differentiated. Brood bodies brown, ellipsoid to cylindric, multicellular, on rhizoids, in leaf axils, or terminal cups. Setae smooth, 3–6 mm long, yellow, becoming reddish with age. Capsules ovoid, erect, 0.5–0.8 mm long, smooth; exothecial cells hexagonal, thin-walled; stomata in neck; opercula obliquely rostrate, 0.5–0.8 mm long; annuli rudimentary, of several rows of quadrate cells, often adhering to the capsule mouth after dehiscence; peristome absent. Spores 10–12 μm, smooth to lightly roughened. Calyptrae yellow, cucullate, smooth, 1.0–1.3 mm long.


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