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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus of about 600 species in tropical and warm temperate regions; 15 species are recorded from Pakistan of which 7 are probably native, 3 are established aliens and 5 are found only in cultivation.


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Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades rolled or flat, linear to ovate; ligule a ciliate rim or a line of hairs, rarely a distinct membrane or absent. Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches. Spikelets usually ovate to elliptic; glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the lower shorter than, and the upper as long as the spikelet; lower floret male or sterile, its lemma usually resembling the upper glume, with or without a palea; upper lemma ± as long as the spikelet, crustaceous, clasping only the margins of the palea. Caryopsis ± ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.

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1 Upper lemma faintly or strongly rugulose (2)
+ Upper lemma smooth and shining (3)
2 (1) Nodes bearded; ligule 4-6 mm long; spikelets usually pubescent (in Pakistan) Panicum maximum
+ Nodes glabrous; ligule up to 2 mm long; spikelets glabrous; in cultivation only Panicum plenum
3 (1) Spikelets 4-5.5 mm long (4)
+ Spikelets up to 3.5 mm long (5)
4 (3) Leaf-sheaths hairy; spikelets persistent; lower glume acuminate, half to three-quarters the length of the spikelet; annual Panicum miliaceum
+ Leaf-sheaths glabrous; spikelets deciduous, lower glume almost as long as the spikelet; glaucous woody perennial Panicum turgidum
5 (3) Lower glume not cuspidate acuminate and spikelets not gaping at maturity (6)
+ Lower glume cuspidate-acuminate, spikelets widely gaping at maturity Panicum trypheron
6 (5) Spikelets narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute (7)
+ Spikelets oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic, acute or obtuse (8)
7 (6) Culms soft, spongy; spikelets narrowly lanceolate; leaf-blades broad, flat Panicum paludosum
+ Culms firm, not spongy; spikelets lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; leaf-blades narrow, often involute Panicum repens
8 (6) Lower glume a quarter to half the length of the spikelet; margins of glumes herbaceous (9)
+ Lower glume half to three-quarters the length of the spikelet, if shorter then plant perennial with margins of glumes broadly membranous (13)
9 (8) Annuals (10)
+ Perennials (12)
10 (9) Panicle branches and branchlets stouter; inflorescence remaining attached to the plant, only the spikelets falling (11)
+ Panicle branches and branchlets capillary, the spikelets on long fine pedicels; entire inflorescence deciduous at maturity Panicum capillare
11 (10) Spikelets deciduous, 2-3 mm long; panicle effuse; wild grass Panicum psilopodium
+ Spikelets plump, subpersistent, 2-3.5 mm long; panicle contracted; cultivated grass Panicum sumatrense
12 (9) Culms decumbent; leaves not confined to a basal tuft, up to 15 mm wide; cultivated grass Panicum coloratum
+ Culms erect, caespitose; leaves mostly confined to a basal tuft, up to 5 mm wide; cultivated grass Panicum stapfianum
13 (8) Annual; margins of glumes herbaceous (14)
+ Perennial; margins of glumes broadly membranous; fruit pallid Panicum antidotale
14 (13) Fruit pallid Panicum walense
+ Fruit brown Panicum atrosanguineum

Lower Taxa
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