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Published In: Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie 53, 161. 1812. (Ess. Agrostogr.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus of about 20 species in tropical and warm temperate regions through-out the world; 5 species occur in Pakistan.
Comment/Acknowledgements: This is a difficult genus to separate from Brachiaria. The reflexed tip of the upper palea, though requiring careful dissection, seems to be the most reliable distinguishing character.

Echinochloa is taxonomically difficult, for it consists of a number of inter-grading polymorphic complexes; within each complex there are numerous micro-taxa, distinguished as much by their phenology and ecology as by their morphology. This diversity apparently springs from a tendency to self-pollination, coupled with a fluent adaptability to the wealth of ecological niches associated with seasonally wet and ruderal habitats. Little experimental work has been done on these aspects, and there is much uncertainty as to the most appropriate taxonomic treatment.

There is so much introgression between species that unambiguous key characters are hard to find. The habit, whethr annual or perennial, can be one of the most useful, but in Pakistan only Echinochloa stagnina, a floating aquatic, is not annual. Single characters (except the ligule in E. stagnina) should not be trusted implicitly but the descriptions read as a whole. Spikelet measurements exclude awns and awn-points.


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Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades linear, flat; ligule absent or represented by a line of hairs. Inflorescence composed of racemes arranged on a central axis; rhachis triquetrous, scabrid, often setose, the spikelets paired (very rarely single) or on short side branchlets and forming (2-)4 or more rows. Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, convex on the back, flat on the front, ± hispid, cuspidate or awned, rarely obtuse and then the spikelet borne upon a short stipe; lower glume ovate, ± one-third the length of the spikelet, typically acute to acuminate; upper glume as long as the spikelet, acute to acuminate, rarely with a short awn-point or obtuse; lower floret male or barren, with or without a palea, its lemma resembling the upper glume but often awned; upper lemma crustaceous, smooth and shining, acute (very rarely obtuse), clasping only the margins of the palea; upper palea acute (rarely obtuse), with the tip briefly reflexed and ± protuberant bet¬ween the lemma margins. Caryopsis broadly elliptic, dorsally flattened.

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1 Ligule absent (2)
+ Ligule represented by a fringe of hairs, at least in the lower leaves Echinochloa stagnina
2 (1) Spikelets acuminate to awned, hispid; racemes untidily 2-several-rowed, the longest 2-10 cm (3)
+ Spikelets acute to cuspidate (rarely with a subulate point up to 1 mm), pubescent; racemes seldom over 3 cm, simple (4)
3 (2) Spikelets 3.8-6.5 mm; upper lemma 3.5-5 mm; racemes simple Echinochloa oryzoides
+ Spikelets mostly 3-4 mm; upper lemma 2-3 mm; at least the longer racemes with secondary branchlets Echinochloa crus-galli
4 (2) Racemes neatly 4-rowed, openly spaced, commonly half their length apart and appressed to the axis, but sometimes subverticillate and spreading; spikelets 1.5-3 mm long Echinochloa colona
+ Racemes crowded with plump, pallid spikelets, closely spaced to form a dense lanceolate head; spikelets 2.5-3.5 mm long Echinochloa frumentacea
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