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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)
Genus Solanum L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. PI. 184-188. 1753
Note TYPE: S. nigrum L.
Synonym Melongena Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 4, abr. 1754. TYPE: Not designated. Aquartia Jacq., Enum. PI. Carib. 1: 12. 1760. LECTOTYPE: A. aculeata Jacq. ( Solanum aculeatum (Jacq.) Dun.). Battata Hill, Veg. Syst. 9: 32. Ca. 1765. TYPE: Solanum tuberosum L. Bassovia Aubl., PI. Guian. Fr. 1: 217, tab. 85. 1775. TYPE: B. sylvatica Aubl. (= Solanum sp.). Psolanum Neck., Elem. 2: 60. 1790, nomen nudum. Dulcamara Moench, Meth. PI. 514. 1794. TYPE: D. flexuosa Moench (= Solanum dulcamara L.). Pseudocapsicum Moench, Meth. PI. 476. 1794. LECTOTYPE: P. undulatifolium Moench ( S. pseudocapsicum L.). Nycterium Vent., Jard. Malmaison tab. 85. 1803. TYPE: N. cordifolium Vent. ( S. vespertillio Ait.). Androcera Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. PI. 1: 129. 1818. TYPE: A. lobata Nutt. (= Solanum rostratum Dun.). Ceranthera Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 176. 1818. TYPE: C. heteranthera Raf. ( = Solanum rostratum Dun.). Diamonon Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 76. 1836. TYPE: D. coriaceum Raf. (= Solanum havanense Jacq., fide 0. E. Schulz in Urb. Symb. Antill. 6: 1909-10.). Antimion Raf., Autikon Bot. 109. 1840. TYPE: A. tomentosum Raf. (= ?Solanum sp.). Artorhiza Raf., Autikon Bot. 138. 1840, provisional name for Parmentiera Raf., non DC. Parmentiera Raf., Autikon Bot. 108-109. 1840, non DC., Bibl. Univ. Geneve 17: 135. 1838, Bignoniaceae. LECTOTYPE: P. edulis Raf. (= Solanum tuberosum L.). Scubtlon Raf., Autikon Bot. 109. 1840. LECTOTYPE: S. incanum Raf. (= ?Solanum or Lycopersicon sp.). Cliocarpus Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. 4: 141. 1849. TYPE: C. gardneri Miers (= Solanum sp., sect. Brevantherum). Normania Lowe, Man. Fl. Madagascar 2: 70. 1868. TYPE: N. triphylla Lowe (= Solanum trisectum Dun.). Solanopsis Bbrner, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen 21: 282. 1913. TYPE: Based on S. tuberosum L.
Description Herbs, shrubs, trees, lianas, rarely epiphytic or paludal, armed or not, glabrous or pubescent with a variety of simple, branched, stellate, peltate hairs,4 these often glandular, sometimes accompanied by bristles; some species procumbent or root-climbing, sarmentose, or tuber-bearing. Leaves simple or compound, entire, toothed or variously lobed, sometimes armed; petiolate or sessile, some- times clasping the stem; often in a paired arrangement with one smaller (minor) and the other larger (major), and minor leaves sometimes present at dichotomies of the stem; exstipulate, but the minor leaves sometimes pseudostipular. In- florescence terminal, axillary, opposite the leaves or lateral on the stem, often positioned by concaulescence with the stem, consisting of terminal cincinni which are sometimes curling (scorpioid), elongate (racemose) or contracted (um- bellate) and inserted on a peduncle which may be branched (paniculate), very
Habit Herbs, shrubs, trees, lianas
Description short (fascicled), or simple (racemose), rarely consisting of a solitary flower on the stem, ebracteate and ebracteolate, pedicels often with articulation above the base perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles. Flowers mostly perfect, rarely dioeceous or monoeceous, not uncommonly with developmental polygamy, (4-) 5( -6) -merous, sometimes zygomorphic; calyx mostly manifestly lobed, each lobe vascularized by a trace distinct from the base of the pedicel, mostly splitting at the sinuses during egress of flower or fruit, sometimes accrescent in fruit and loosely or tightly investing the berry; corolla rotate with a very short tube, deeply or shallowly lobed; stamens equal or not, the filaments inserted on the corolla tube, often partially connate, rarely wanting, sometimes pubescent, the anthers basifixed or nearly so, opening by 2 terminal pores and sometimes ultimately longitudinally, dehiscence introrse or extrorse, rarely pubescent, mostly connivant into a tube but rarely connate, the connective small; ovary 2-loculed with pro- liferation of the placenta, the ovules many, the style (pistillate) equalling or ex- ceeding the anthers, rarely persistent, the stigma small, 2-4-lobed. Fruit a juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, woody or dry berry, sometimes partly hollow, mostly falling from the receptacle, mostly flattened but sometimes prismatic or almost spheroidal, the embryo circinnate around the periphery of the seed, the endosperm fleshy.
Note The genus may be recognized by the 5-parted calyx and by the anthers which dehisce by terminal pores and lack an expanded connective. Other useful char- acters for recognition are the rotate, 5-lobed corolla, berry fruit, flattened seeds, stellate pubescence, spines, minor leaves and pedicel scars on the peduncle in species where these features occur.
Distribution One of the largest genera of flowering plants, Solanum includes over 1,400 described species. Almost world-wide in distribution, the genus has the greatest number of species in tropical America, but there are many species in temperate America and in Africa.
Note The genus is best known for the cultivated potato (S. tuberosum), for its many weeds of disturbed habitats, and for the species of upland forests, semi-deserts, coastal and riparian habitats. Distribution is mainly by birds, but other vectors are probably important for some species. Phylogeny within the genus is undecided. Dunal (1852), Bitter (1911-23), Seithe (1962), D'Arcy (1972) and other workers have tried to recognize a fundamental dichotomy in the genus separating species with stellate hairs, tapering anthers, and spines from those species with simple hairs, stout anthers, and no spines. This simplistic approach has led to disagreement over placement of several major groups. Elongate ovaries, axillary inflorescences, and clasping petioles may be primi- tive morphological features in the genus; they appear in the genus Cyphomandra and the tribe Daturae. From an ancestral group of plants with primitive morphology, not two but several lines of speciation have emerged. Sections Archaesolanum (not in Panama), Pteroidea, Brevantherum, and perhaps Aculei- gerum have members with suggestions of primitive morphology, and they are here considered to form parts of a separate subgenera in recognition of separate evolutionary pathways. Reflecting advancement over a primitive Solanum This content downloaded from on Tue, 14 May 2013 16:07:58 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions682 ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN [VOL. 60 morphology, the subgenera Solanum and Leptostemonum are morphologically distinctive and may have evolved not as lines of speciation directly from ancestors with primitive morphology, but from plants which would today be placed in one of the other subgenera. Section Lepidota may also represent this situation, for while it is placed in subgenus Brevantherum, its scutellate hairs and irregularly dehiscent calyx are evolutionary advances over other members of the genus. Plants of the genus Solanum have a very important relationship with man. Many are noxious weeds, and many are important food plants, while others are used for ornamental or medicinal purposes. In terms of acreage, tonnage production, market value, and dietary importance, Solanum tuberosum is one of man's most important dicotyledonous crop plants. Solanum melongena is an im- portant vegetable crop in some parts of the world. Many other species are of minor or local importance as food plants, e.g. S. quitoirse in Panama. Solanum wendlandii, S. seaforthianum, S. pseudocapsicum, and other species are widely grown for ornament. In eastern Europe, S. torvum or its relatives provide steroid alkaloids, and many species are used as household remedies in various parts of the world. No species are of known importance for their lumber or fibres.
Reference Bitter, G. [Series of many papers appearing in Fedde Repert. 10-19' and in Bor. Jahrb. Syst. 54-55. For a full bibliography see C. A. Weber, Ber. Deutsche Bot. Ges. 46 (Generalvers. Heft 1): 148-156. 1928.] 1911-1923. D'Arcy, W. G. Solanaceae studies II: Typification of subdivisions of Solanum. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 262-278. 1972 [1973]. Dunal, M. F. Solanaceae. In A. P. De Candolle, "Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis." 13(1): 1-690. Paris 1852. Seithe, A. Die Haararten der Gattung Solanum L. und ihre taxonomische Verwertung. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 261-336. 1962.
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