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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 793. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/13/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 9/11/2020)
Contributor Text: A. Ghafoor
Contributor Institution: Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi – Pakistan
Synonym Text:

Aetheorhiza Cass. in Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 48: 425. 1827; Trachodes D. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 16: 182. 1833; Sonchoseris Fourr. in Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, Sér. 2, 17: 1869; Sonchidium Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 6. 1874; Kirkianella Allan, Fl. N. Zeal. 1: 761. 1961.


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Annual, biennial or  to perennial, rather ± fleshy, coarse, erect herbs with sparse branches from below. Leaves alternate, entire to pinnately dissected,  mostly auriculate-clasping at the base,  often prickly margined. Capitula numerous-flowered, on stipitate glandulose, basally more or less white tomentose peduncles,  mostly few  to numerous in corymbose or panicle-like synflorescence. Involucre campanulate to broadly campanulate, often beset with glandular hairs and whitish tomentose at the base.  Phyllaries green, glandular hairy to glabrous, multiseriate, imbricate, with age hardened at the base. Receptacle flat, naked. Florets with narrow, yellow ligules. Cypselas narrowly ovoid to ellipsoid, strongly compressed, usually narrowed at both the ends, bearing  4-5 principal ribs, each associated by 2 secondary ribs, apically truncate,  often  tuberculate to rugose or not. Pappus dimorphic, white, bristles smooth to scabrid, never plumose, outer hairs soft, cottony, copious,  caducous or persistent, much longer than the cypselas, and inner bristles short, thicker, more or less deciduous.

A  paraphyletic genus consisting of c. 90 species (Mabberley, 2008),  mainly occurring in Africa, Asia, Europe, Australasia , a few widely distributed all over the globe being adventive weeds.  Represented in Pakistan by 5 species.


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Cypselas flattened, papery, smooth between the ribs, ± winged.


3. S. asper 


Cypselas 4-angled to slightly flattened, neither papery nor winged, rugulose between the ribs.








Annuals or biennials. Auricles of upper leaves acute.



Perennials. Auricles of upper leaves rounded.






Leaf blades pinnately parted with narrow lobes, less than 0.5 cm wide or strongly constricted at the base, terminal lobe usually as long as lateral lobes. Peduncle gland-tipped hairy. Ligules longer than tube. Cypselas abruptly narrowed at the base, narrowly oblanceolate.





2. S. tenerrimus



Leaf  blades serrate or with lobes 0.5-3 cm wide or lobes, if present, not constricted at the base, terminal lobe usually much longer than lateral lobes. Ligules ± as long as tube. Cypselas gradually narrowed at base, oblanceolate.





1 . S. oleraceus



Involucre of c. 27 phyllaries. Ligules much longer than corolla tube. Pappus caducous.                      



4. S. maritimus



Involucre of 38-50 phyllaries. Ligules ± equal to or shorter than corolla tube. Pappus persistent.


5. S. wightianus


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