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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/24/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/24/2013)
Genus Erythroxylum P. Br.
PlaceOfPublication Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 1: 278. 1756.
Note TYPE: E. aureolatum L. (1759, non 1770). "Erythroxylon" mult. auct.
Synonym Sethia H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 5: 175. 1821. TYPE: Based on Eryjthroxyluin monogynum Roxb. Steudelia Spreng., Neue Endeck. 3: 59. 1882. TYPE: S. brasiliensis Spr. ? = E. suberosum St.-Hil. (1828), fide 0. E. Schulz. Roelana Comm. ex DC. nomen nudum in syn. R. laurifolffint Comm., nomen nudum, cited as basionym for Erythroxi luim laurifolium DC. Venelia Comm. ex Endl., Gen. 1065. 1840. Nomen nudum. Taken up by 0. E. Schulz as Erythroxylum sect. Venelia Comm. ex 0. E. Schulz for 5 species of Madagascar. TYPE: E. hypericifolium Lam.
Description Glabrous trees or shrubs; twigs compressed, usually becoming terete; sap sometimes yellow or reddish, bitter. Leaves simple, entire, minute to large, al- ternate-distichous, deciduous often several times a year, ptyxis involute often leaving lines or a distinctly textured areole on the leaf undersides, venation pin- nate, the midvein prominent, often excurrent beneath, the lateral veins mostly numerous, anastomosing irregularly with reticulate minor venation both within and beyond the arc of the lateral veins; petioles basally articulated; stipules mostly fused forming a single structure distal to the petiole with 2 median ribs and in some species with numerous striations, sometimes setose or fimbriate, on new growth or near inflorescences sometimes appearing without a leaf (ramenta) or with the leaf reduced to a minute cylindrical stub. Inflorescence mostly fas- ciculate, appearing as the leaves mature, subtended by bracts which resemble the stipules; the pedicels mostly angled, articulated near the base and accom- panied by paired bractlets (prophylls). Flotwers mostly perfect, sometimes subdioecious, heterostylous with the styles and filaments alternating in length; calyx 5-lobed, sometimes wing-angled, the sepals imbricate or valvate, some- times to a sharp point, persistent; petals free, deciduous, mostly white, the bot- tom third demarcated from the upper portion, mostly with 2 more or less fused petaloid appendages arising from the horizontal demarcation, often with a nec- tary situated between the appendages and petal lamina and median to the line of demarcation; stamens 10, in 2 series, the outermost alternate with the petals, the filaments basally fused into a tube, the innermost sometimes ventral to the truncate or dentate rim of the tube, the outermost arising directly from the tube, the anthers 2-loculed, rotund, basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary ellip- soid or ovoid, mostly slightly truncate, 3-loculed, only one locule ovule-bearing, this with one (?rarely 2) pendulous, epitropous, anatropous ovule. Fruit a small, red, baccate drupe, the endocarp hard; seed shiny, endosperm present or want- ing, sometimes copious.
Habit trees or shrubs
Note Erythroxylum may be recognized by its dorsally ridged stipules, by its al- ternate-distichous leaf arrangement and frequent leaf fall, and by its small whitish flowers with 10 basally united stamens and 3 stigmas. The shiny red fruit is sometimes conspicuous. Erythroxylum is now considered to include 200-300 species throughout the tropics with the greatest number of species in South America. The species are for the most part poorly defined and there would seem to be a considerable re- dundancy of names in use. Perhaps fewer than half of these refer to distinct species. Panama is no exception to this situation, and some of the elements treated here may best be placed with other species from South America. The treatment of the Panamanian species presented here represents the initial stages of a more wide-ranging study of the genus which was terminated before satis- factory understanding of the variability of the plants could be achieved. In the course of this aborted endeavor, type material of many species was kindly made available by curators of herbaria in both America and Europe for which ac- knowledgement is gratefully made4. Dr. Timothy Plowman and Mr. Charles Sheviak, both of Harvard University, are currently undertaking a large-scale study of the genus employing field observations, cytological, chemical and other methods, and this work may clarify the difficulties encountered with regard to the Panamanian plants. Erythroxylum coca Lam. and some closely related species native to the uplands of Peru and Bolivia are the source of cocaine. These species are also cultivated for cocaine in other parts of the tropics. A number of species are used locally for various medicinal purposes. Traditional use of the leaves for "coca" involves chewing of the leaves with small quantities of unslaked lime several times a day. Besides an immediate warming sensation, this confers endurance to fatique and hunger for long periods. The refined drug cocaine was formerly used for local anaesthesia and for a number of other medical conditions as well as for enjoyment. It acts as a strong nervous stimulant. Public use of the drug was banned by most governments in the early part of this century. Cocaine may be an addictive drug. Medical requirements for cocaine have been largely sup- planted by novocain and other drugs lacking undesireable features of cocaine.
Distribution Erythroxylum is now considered to include 200-300 species throughout the tropics with the greatest number of species in South America.
Key a. Stipules and bracts longitudinally many-striate, sometimes more than 5 mm long; leaf undersides without a pair of distinct lines longitudinally flanking the midvein. b. Leaves broad, mostly more than 10 cm long; petiole more than 1 cm long; flowering branch with numerous empty large bracts or stipules (ramenta) be- low the lowest fascicle; flowers in dense clusters surrounding and obscuring the stem; pedicels 8-20 mm long; fruiting calyces more than 4 mm long ...... 1. E. multiflorum bb. Plants not as above, leaves mostly much smaller, often narrow; petioles less than 1 cm long; bracts or ramenta less than 1.5 cm long and not clustered be- low the fascicles; flowers solitary or in discrete clusters (fascicles); pedicels mostly less than 8 mm long; fruiting calyces less than 3 mm long. c. Leaves rigidly coriaceous, broadly elliptical, less than 8 cm long, more than half as broad as long ...... 2. E. campestre In particular, large amounts of material were lent by curators at A, BM, DUKE, F, GOETT, GH, K, P, S, US. cc. Leaves membranaceous or if coriaceous then less than half as broad as long and more than 8 cm long. d. Flowers accompanied by bracts or stipules more than 3 mm long; sepals ovate with conspicuous, lighter colored margins, mostly more than 1.5 mm long, slightly imbricate in bud. e. Sepals more than 1.5 mm long, ovate; leaves mostly more than 10 cm long, more than 4.5 cm wide; stipules various ...... 3a. E. blcidum var. blcidlutn ee. Sepals less than 1.5 mm long, deltoid; leaves mostly less than 10 cm long; stipules less than 11 mm long ...... 3b. E. lucidum var. costariceiise dd. Flowers not accompanied by bracts or stipules (stipules mostly decidu- ous before flowers develop); sepals acute with thin, inconspicuous mar- gins, less than 1.5 mm long, not imbricate in bud ...... A4. E . citrifolium var. m intis aa. Stipules and bracts with two dorsal ridges but not striate, not more than 5 mm long; leaf undersides sometimes with a pair of lines longitudinally flanking the midvein. f. Leaves narrow, more than 2.5 times as long as broad, acute at both ends, mostly more than 4 cm long. g. Lines on leaf undersides flanking the midvein indistinct, interrupted or wanting; pedicels with distinct, rounded angles; sepals deltoid, divided halfway down, not striate ...... 5. E. panamense gg. Lines on leaf undersides flanking the midvein prominent, continuous; pedicel angles not well demarcated; sepals acute, divided more than halfway down, drying minutely striate ...... 6. E. davidii ff. Leaves broad, less than 2.5 times as long as broad, apically obtuse, rounded, or emarginate, not acute, mostly less than 6 cm long. h. Lines on leaf undersides flanking the midvein prominent; leaves broadly elliptical, obtuse at each end; pedicels about as long as the calyx, strongly thickened upwards ...... 7. E. brennae hh. Lines on undersides flanking the midvein wanting or rare; leaves obovate or spathulate, the base narrower than the apex; pedicels about 11/2 times as long as the calyx, little thickened upwards ...... 8. E. havanense
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