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Published In: De Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes 21, 30, 38. 1817. (Aug-Sept 1817) (De Orchid. Eur.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/23/2009)


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1. Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich. ex Lindl. (large twayblade, lily twayblade)

Pl. 114 e, f; Map 469

Flowering stems 8–30 cm long, the raceme with 5–30 flowers. Leaves 5–15 cm long, broadly elliptic to ovate. Sepals 9–12 mm long, yellowish green, the margins curled under. Lateral petals 10–13 mm long, pendant, brownish purple. Lip 7–12 mm long, obovate, the tip with an abrupt point, brownish purple with darker purple veins. Capsules 15–18 mm long, the stalks as long as or longer than the capsules. May–June.

Scattered nearly throughout the state, but more common in the eastern half (eastern U.S. west to Iowa and Arkansas; China). Dry or more commonly mesic upland forests on acidic substrates, on stream banks, slopes, and ridgetops; also occasionally on sandstone ledges.

For a discussion of further vegetative characters to distinguish L. liliifolia from the related L. loeselii, see the treatment of that species. There have been no studies to confirm the insect pollinators for large twayblade, although flies and other insects have been observed to visit the flowers. Some botanists continue to spell the specific epithet incorrectly, “lilifolia.”


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1 Lip 7–12 mm long, brownish purple; stalks of mature fruits as long as or longer than the fruits 1 Liparis
+ Lip 4–6 mm long, yellowish green; stalks of mature fruits shorter than the fruits 2 Liparis loeselii
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