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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1000. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)


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1. Pinus L. (pine)

Leaves needlelike, in fascicles of 2–5 on highly condensed “short shoots,” the fascicles with a papery basal sheath, this sometimes shed as the leaves mature. Microstrobili ovoid to cylindrical, yellow. Megastrobili conelike, woody, dehiscent, requiring 2–3 years to mature. Seeds winged [lacking wings elsewhere], 1.5–3.0 cm long (including the wing), the wing usually longer than the rest of the seed. About 100 species, North America, Central America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands.

Pines are among the commercially most important timber trees of North America. Although only Pinus echinata is native to Missouri, a variety of other species are grown in the state. Some of these, such as ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson), red pine (P. resinosa Aiton) (Pl. 21g,h,i), and Scotch pine (P. sylvestris L.), are grown only as ornamentals or on Christmas tree farms. However, several other pines are commonly planted in timber plantations, for wildlife habitat, and for erosion control. Such species frequently produce cones and successfully reproduce within the populations, thus might be considered to be naturalized locally. These are treated below in the interests of completeness, although for the most part there is no evidence that the plants ever disperse to new sites.


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1 1. Leaves in fascicles of 5; fascicle sheaths shed as the leaves mature...4. P. STROBUS

Pinus strobus
2 1. Leaves in fascicles of 2 or 3; fascicle sheaths persistent

3 2. Leaves in fascicles of 3

4 3. Leaves 7–12 cm long...2. P. ECHINATA

Pinus echinata
5 3. Leaves 13–23 cm long...5. P. TAEDA

Pinus taeda
6 2. Leaves in fascicles of 2

7 3. Leaves 2–4 cm long; cones asymmetrical, curved or arched to the side (most easily seen before dehiscence), the scales mostly lacking spines...1. P. BANKSIANA

Pinus banksiana
8 3. Leaves 4–18 cm long; cones symmetrical, not curved or arched, each scale with a spine near the apex

9 4. Cone scales with slender, 1–3 mm long, straight, needlelike spines; leaves 4–8 cm long...6. P. VIRGINIANA

Pinus virginiana
10 4. Cone scales with minute or 1–2 mm long, usually curved spines; leaves 7–18 cm long

11 5. Twigs brown to reddish brown, usually glaucous; leaves flexible; cones brown, the scales not shiny...2. P. ECHINATA

Pinus echinata
12 5. Twigs light brown, not glaucous; leaves stiff; cones yellowish brown, the scales somewhat shiny...3. P. NIGRA Pinus nigra
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