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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1059. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: ABDUL GHAFOOR
General/Distribution: Nearly 1000 species, distributed in tropics and subtropics, especially Indo-malesia and Polynesia. Represented in Pakistan by 24 species, of which 11 are native.


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Monoecious or functionally dioecious trees, shrubs or root climbers, twiners and hemi-epiphytes, often with adventitious roots. Leaves simple, alternate or rarely opposite, entire or serrate, palmately lobed, obtuse or acute or acuminate, deciduous or persistent; stipules connate (single) or free lateral closing the terminal bud, caducous, leaving annular scars. Inflorescence axillary or cauliflorous, globular or pyriform rarely oblong, fleshy hollow hypanthodium with a terminal ostiole with scales spreading across outside or pointing vertically downwards. Flowers numerous, borne on inner side of hypanthodium, of 4 types (male, female, gall and sterile male or neuter), sessile or pedicellate, bracteate. Male flowers: ostiolar in one or several rows or dispersed among female within; calyx 2-6-lobed or partite, lobes imbricate, sometimes reduced scales; stamens 1.2 (-3.6), filaments upright, anthers ovate or oblong, dithecous with apical crescentric or equatorial transverse dehiscence or tetrathecous with longitudinally introrse dehiscence; pistillode vestigial or absent. Female flowers often numerous, borne away from the ostiole, usually dispersed; calyx variable in size and number, sometimes reduced or wanting; ovary straight or, oblique, unilocular, with solitary, pendulous bitegmic ovule; style eccentric or subapical to gynobasic, stigma bifid or simple; staminodes absent. Gall flowers: abundant and disperse, each with sterile often pedicellate ovary, enclosing one developing insect. Neuter flowers: a few or absent, with calyx only. Fruit ± fleshy, smooth or ribbed, with or without sclerotic cells, sometimes orificially splitting, figs enclosing a large number of thinly pulpy, white or brown, minute, 1-seeded druplets or achenes. Seeds often compressed, with membranous coat and incurved embryo, often exalbuminous.

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1 Root climbers or creepers. Hypanthodia pedunculate (2)
+ Trees, shrubs or stranglers (3)
2 (1) Hypanthodia subglobose to pyriform or obovoid-turbinate, 20-30 mm in diameter (cultivated) 2 Ficus pumila
+ Hypanthodia globose to ovoid or obovoid, 8-15 mm in diameter 1 Ficus sarmentosa
3 (1) Hypanthodia borne on trunk or main old branches (cauliflorous) (4)
+ Hypanthodia borne on young branches in leaf axils or behind the leaves (not cauliflorous). (7)
4 (3) Leaves alternate. Figs pink, purple-brown or rose-red (5)
+ Leaves opposite, rarely subopoosite. Figs pale-green or greenish-yellow 3 Ficus hispida
5 (4) Leaf base equal sided. Hypanthodia more than 15 mm in diameter (6)
+ Leaf-base highly unequal-sided, with a large lower lobe overlapping the petiole. Hypanthodia 10-12 mm in diameter 4 Ficus semicordata
6 (5) Young twigs not hollow. Lamina narrowly ovate-lanceolate to ± elliptic-lanceolate glabrous on both sides. (Cultivated) 6 Ficus racemosa
+ Young twigs hollow. Lamina broadly ovate to rotundate-ovate, softly pubescent beneath 5 Ficus auriculata
7 (3) Lateral nerves not parallel in leaf blade (8)
+ Lateral nerves parallel in leaf blade (10)
8 (7) Leaves more than 15 cm long; stipules more than 5 cm long. Figs yellowish-brown or dark reddish-brown to purple (9)
+ Leaves less than 15 cm long; stipules less than 1.5 cm long. Figs orange-red. (Cultivated) 7 Ficus benjamina
9 (8) Lamina glabrous on both sides. Lateral nerves more than 20 pairs, almost spreading parallel, intercostals absent. (Cultivated) 8 Ficus elastica
+ -lamina silvery to rusty dotted beneath. Lateral nerves up to 20 pairs, ± ascending parallel, intercostals present. (Cultivated) 9 Ficus macrophylla
10 (7) Leaves not as above (11)
+ Leaves fiddle-shaped or pandurate 10 Ficus lyrata
11 (10) Leaves 3-5-lobed (12)
+ Leaves unlobed or slightly lobed (13)
12 (11) Leaf-lobes spathulate, densely soft hairy, especially on nerves beneath, apically few dentate. Petiole frequently more than 2- cm long 11 Ficus carica
+ eaf-lobes not spathulate, slightly hairy to glabrescent scabrous beneath. Petiole up to 2 (-3) cm long 12 Ficus johannis
13 (11) Hypanthodia pedunculate (26)
+ Hypanthodia sessile or subsessile (14)
14 (13) Leaves rusty or whitish pubescent beneath at least when young, glabrous above (15)
+ Leaves completely glabrous on both sides (17)
15 (14) Hypanthodia less than 1.5-2 cm in diameter, yellow to orange-red or rusty-brown on maturity (16)
+ Hypanthodia 1.5-2 cm in diameter, pinkish-red on maturity 13 Ficus benghalensis
16 (15) Leaves polymorphic, broadly obovate-oblanceolate, spathulate or elliptic to deltoid, midrib foked or simple and penninerved with glands in forks or axils of nerves beneath. Hypanthodia glabrous. (Cultivated) 15 Ficus deltoidea
+ Leaves ovate to elliptic-oblong, nerve angles without glands beneath. Hypanthodia rusty pubescent, warted. 14 Ficus rubiginosa
17 (14) Hypanthodia shortly pedunculate (18)
+ Hypanthodia sessile (20)
18 (17) Petiole more than 1.5 cm long. Lateral nerves more than 6 pairs. Figs pink-purple or reddish (19)
+ Petiole up to 1 cm long. Lateral nerves 4-6 pairs. Figs yellow, warty 16 Ficus subincisa
19 (18) Figs hairy with black spots, 12-15 mm in diameter 17 Ficus virens
+ Figs glabrous, 8-10 mm in diameter 18 Ficus neriifolia
20 (17) Leaves deltoid-ovate with more than 2 cm long acumen (21)
+ Leaves not deltoid-ovate, with less than 2 cm long acumen (22)
21 (20) Leaf acumen about ½ as long as lamina; stipules small 19 Ficus religiosa
+ leaf acumen about ¼ as long as lamina; stipules large 20 Ficus rumphii
22 (20) Figs up to 10 mm in diameter (23)
+ Figs more than 10 mm in diameter (25)
23 (22) Petiole neither glandular at tip nor articulate to cuneate base of lamina (24)
+ Petiole glandular at tip, articulate to the obtuse-truncate base of lamina 22 Ficus tsjahela
24 (23) Lamina glossy-coriaceous, elliptic-ovate to obovate or rhomboid, obtuse to subacute with a blunt short acumen, rarely retuae. (Cultivated) 21 Ficus microcarpa
+ Lamina not glossy-coriaceous, lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate with a gradually narrowed long acute acumen 18 Ficus neriifolia
25 (22) Petiole without a terminal gland. Lamina with 10-15 mm long acumen. Ovary reddish brown 17 Ficus virens
+ Petiole with a terminal gland. Lamina acute or ± obtusely short acuminate. Ovary white 23 Ficus amplissima
26 (13) Leaves not polymorphic, without glands in the axis of nerves beneath (27)
+ Leaves polymorphic with the midrib forked or simple and penninerved, black glands present in forks or axils of nerves beneath 15 Ficus deltoidea
27 (26) Not as above (28)
+ Young shoots, lower surface of lamina and figs. rusty-pubescent 14 Ficus rubiginosa
28 (27) Leaves scabrous above, soft hairy to glabrescent beneath (29)
+ Leaves completely glabrous on both sides (30)
29 (28) Lamina nearly as long as broad, dentate-serrate, basally cunsate to rotundate or truncate-subcordate 24 Ficus palmata
+ Lamina usually longer than broad, serrate, basally cordate 11 Ficus carica
30 (28) Petiole more than 10 mm long. Lamina with 7-15 pairs of lateral nerves. Figs not dimorphic, pink-purple or reddish (31)
+ Petiole up to 10 mm long. Lamina with 4-6 pain of lateral nerves. Figs dimorphdic, yellow, warty 16 Ficus subincisa
31 (30) Petiole articulate to the obtuse-truncate base of lamina. Figs 12-15 mm in diameter 17 Ficus virens
+ Petiole not articulate to the cuneate base of lamina. Figs 8-12 mm in diameter 18 Ficus neriifolia

Lower Taxa
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