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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 112. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A cosmopolitan genus, with approximately 270 species, which is represented in Pakistan by nearly 20 species.


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Annual or perennial, or mostly acaulescent herbs, sometimes an undershrub. Leaves usually all radical, sometimes cauline. Flowers hermaphrodite, dimorphic, polygamous, usually in many-flowered cylindrical spikes, rarely capitate. Calyx lobes subequal or 2 large and 2 small. Corolla tube cylindrical, sometimes contracted at the throat, usually equalling the calyx, sometimes exserted, lobes 4, equal, patent. Stamens 4, inserted at or above the middle of the corolla tube, often exserted. Ovary 2-locular or 3-4-locular with false free septa; locules with 1 to many ovules. Capsule membranous, circumscissile. Seeds usually peltate, testa thin, mucilaginous, albumen fleshy.

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1 Stems absent or very short, (poorly developed in Plantago amplexicaulis); leaves all radical, spirally arranged (2)
+ Stems present, well developed; leaves opposite (19)
2 (1) Corolla tube or lobes pilose to hirsute (3)
+ Corolla tube and lobes glabrous (5)
3 (2) Corolla tube glabrous, lobes pilose or hirsute (4)
+ Corolla tube pilose, lobes glabrous Plantago coronopus
4 (3) Corolla lobes narrow-ovate, 1.5 mm long. spikes ovoid, 10-20 mm long. Capsules 1.5 mm long, ellipsoid to short cylindrical, at the base semiglobose. Leaves obovate, lanceolate, spathulate to obovate spathulate
+ Corolla lobes triangular-ovate, 1 mm long Spikes first ovoid, later short cylindrical, 8-15 mm long. Capsules 3.5 mm long, ellipsoied. Leaves narrow lanceolate, to oblanceolate Plantago lagocephala
5 (2) Ovary 2-ovuled (6)
+ Ovary 3-many ovule (14)
6 (5) Leaves not amplexicaul. Stems not developed (7)
+ Leaves distinctly amplexicaul. Stems poorly developed, branched at the bases Plantago amplexicaulis subsp. bauphula
7 (6) Anterior sepals connate (8)
+ Anterior sepals free (9)
8 (7) Perennial. Leaves with 5 nerves. Sepals 3-3.5 mm long, glabrous to slightly pilose. Corolla lobes not acuminate Plantago lanceolata
+ Annual. Leaves with 3-5 nerves. Sepals 2-5.3 mm long. hirsute-pilose. Corolla lobes distinctly acuminate Plantago lagopus
9 (7) Spikes usually 2-4 to rarely 1-flowered, 3-4.5 mm long, 3-4.2 mm broad
+ Spikes more than 5-flowered, much longer and broader than above (10)
10 (9) Bracts mostly broad at the apices. Anterior and posterior sepals thin, tender, more or less similar, carina weak, visible only at the base or running to the middle of the sepals. Corolla lobes narrow, not reflexed
+ Bracts broad or narrow at the apices. Anterior and posterior sepals well differentiated, carina of the sepals strong. Corolla lobes usually broad and strongly reflexed (11)
11 (10) Carina running throughout the length of the sepals. Corolla lobes ovate-lanceolate to ovaterotundate, 2-3 mm long (12)
+ Carina not running throughout the length of the sepals, only visible at he base, upper part without nerve. Corolla lobes narrowly ovate lanceolate, 1 mm long Plantago loeflingii
12 (11) Leaves lanceolate. Spikes when young short, 3-9 cm long, later much elongated, up to 17 cm long, bearing distant fruits. Sepals densely and uniformly covered with short grey hairs
+ Leaves linear to lanceolate. Spikes when young 0.5-7 cm long, not elongated in fruit, always dense. Sepals glabrous or hairy at the margins (13)
13 (12) Leaves linear, 1-1.5 (-2.5) mm broad. Spikes capituliform to short cylindrical, 0.5-2 cm long. Bracts 3 mm long, margins at the upper part ciliate. Sepals 2.5 mm long entire. Corolla lobes broad ovate to rotundate cordate 12 Plantago ovata
+ Leaves liner to lanceolate, 2-15 mm broad. Spikes cylindrical oblong, 2-7 cm long. Bracts 4-5 mm long, margin villosa, hairs long. sepals 3-2.5 mm long, margins at the upper part villosa. Corolla lobes lanceolate-ovate Plantago cylindrica
14 (5) Ovary with 6-34 ovules (15)
+ Ovary with 3-5 ovules (17)
15 (14) Calyx short stip
+ desc needed
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