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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)
Genus Markea L.-Cl. Rich.
PlaceOfPublication Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 107. 1792.
Note TYPE: M. coccinea L.-Cl. Rich.
Synonym Lamarckea Pers., Syn. 1: 218. 1805. TYPE: Based on Markea coccinea L.-Cl. Rich. Marckea A. Rich., Dict. Class. 10: 168. 1826. TYPE: Based on Markea coccinea L.-Cl. Rich. Dyssochroma Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. 4: 250. 1849. TYPE: Solandra viridiflora Sims (= Markea viridiflora (Sims) Ducke). Ectozoma Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. 4: 191. 1849. TYPE: E. pavonii (Miers) D'Arcy.2" Merinthopodium Donn. Sm., Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 33: 11. 1897. TYPE: Markea neurantha Hemsley.
Description Unarmed shrubs or vines, mostly hemi-epiphytes; stems mostly slender with a large, often fistulose pith, the twigs often an expanded cicatrix from fallen leaves and inflorescences. Leaves simple, entire, mostly clustered at the ends of the twigs; minor leaves wanting. Inflorescences appearing terminal at the ends of twigs, solitary or variously paniculate, racemose or corymbose, some- times pendant below the leaves, peduncles short and stout in some species and in others very long and slender; pedicels mostly either short or very long. Flowers inconspicuous or showy, calyx 5-35 mm long, fleshy and globose or tubular, split into 5 short or long lobes, glabrous; corolla valvate anid mostly pointed in bud, 7-100 mm long, mostly campanulate, actinomorphic, the tube short and the limb (cup) well-developed, angled near the base and sometimes tubular, the lobes short, recurved or not; stamens 5, equal, the filaments straight, inserted near the base of the limb, the anthers elongate, rarely linear, 4-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally, sometimes apiculate, exserted or not; ovary superior to partly inferior, sometimes short stipitate with a nectariferous disc partially or wholly represented near the base, 2-loculed, the ovules many. Fruit a conical or obovoid leathery berry which approximates the length of the calyx lobes; seeds somewhat flattened, often bent; embryo curved or almost straight.
Habit shrubs or vines
Note As now constituted, Markea embraces about 20 species of questionable af- finity. The generic limits and possible relationships between species now placed in Juanulloa, Solandra, and Markea are not well understood. Comparative studies of these three genera plus such poorly known groups formerly known as Ectozoma, Sarcophysa, etc., are desirable, but collections of some of these are unique, and material is not sufficient to permit dissections or other technical operations. The Panamanian species of Markea are here considered to fall into three sections22 which may at some time be segregated as distinct genera. Section Megalandra is in some respects intermediate between sect. Markea and the genus Solandra- the anthers are relatively short, the corolla is imbricate in bud, the leaves are coriaceous, and there is a strong suggestion of perigyny. Several species described in Solandra are congeneric with Markea sect. Megalandra, but the calyx structure, punctate leaves, degree of perigyny, anther shape and corolla size distinguish this section from Solandra. Most species of Markea are myrmecodomatial, the ants often innocuous but sometimes hazardous to botanists or others intruding on their precincts. The flowers of several species of Markea open nocturnally, e.g. M. dressleri, and in the daytime fully opened flowers are to be found only on the forest floor. These flowers are probably visited by bats: bat pollination of Markea species with like flowers has been documented (Vogel, S. Fledermausblumen in Sudamerika. Oesterreich. Bot. Zeitschr. 104: 491-530. 1958). The genus takes its name from Jean Antoine Pierre Monnet de, Lamarck, 1744-1829, a noted French biologist. The apparent orthographic corrections by A. Richard to Marckea and by Persoon to Lamarckea are not in the interest of nomenclatural stability.
Key a. Corollas less than 15 mm long (C. sect. Granatense) -5. M. ulei aa. Corolla more than 30 mm long. b. Leaves coriaceous, glandular punctate beneath (under a lens), the margins revolute, peduncles and pedicels short (B. sect. Megalandra). c. Calyx less than 20 mm long ...... 4. M. megalandra cc. Calyx more than 30 mm long ...... 3. M. crosbiana bb. Leaves membranaceous, not punctate beneath; inflorescence (peduncle plus pedicel) elongate, more than 5 cm long (A. sect. Markea). d. Leaf venation strongly ascending, mostly arising from the basal half of the leaf, leaves very broad; corolla 8 cm long; calyx 4 cm long including the slender terminal appendage ...... 1. M. dressleri dd. Leaf venation ascending at ca. 450, not arising mostly from the basal portion of the leaf, leaves more than 2 times as long as broad; corolla 4-5 cm long, calyx ca. 1.5 cm long without an elongate terminal appendage ...... 2. M. neurantha
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