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Published In: Familles des Plantes 2: 99, 612. 1763. (Fam. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/4/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Introduced


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39. Torilis Adans. (hedge-parsley)

Plants annual. Stems loosely ascending to erect, pubescent with stiff, white, usually downwardly appressed hairs. Leaves alternate and usually also basal (several basal leaves usually present at flowering), the basal and lower stem leaves short- to long-petiolate, the median and upper leaves short-petiolate or more commonly sessile or nearly so, the sheathing bases not or only slightly inflated, with glabrous margins. Leaf blades 3–15 cm long (uppermost leaves sometimes only 0.5 cm), narrowly oblong-ovate to ovate-triangular in outline, 1 or 2 times pinnately compound, the leaflets 5–60 mm long, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, usually deeply pinnately dissected, mostly narrowed at the base, the lobes with the margins mostly sharply few-toothed, narrowed to a sharp point at the tip, moderately to densely pubescent with stiff, white hairs on both surfaces. Inflorescences terminal and/or lateral, compound umbels (often appearing simple and headlike in T. nodosa), short- to long-stalked (sometimes appearing sessile in T. nodosa). Involucre absent or of 1–10 bracts, these hairy. Rays 2–10, pubescent with stiff, white, usually upwardly appressed hairs. Involucel of 3–8 bractlets, these longer than the flower stalks, narrowly elliptic to more commonly linear, hairy. Flowers 5–20 in each umbellet. Sepals absent or minute triangular scales. Petals obovate to fan-shaped, rounded or shallowly notched at the tip, white. Ovaries hairy. Fruits oblong-elliptic to ovate in outline, narrowed or rounded at the base, narrowed to a blunt, beakless tip, flattened laterally, grayish brown to grayish green, the mericarps somewhat narrowed along the commissures, the slender and nervelike ribs usually appressed-hairy, usually obscured by a dense covering of long bristles, these more or less spreading, mostly with minute, terminal barbs. About 15 species, Europe, Asia, Africa.


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1 1. Inflorescences all lateral, consisting of dense, often apparently simple umbels opposite the leaves, the umbels appearing sessile or nearly so, dense and headlike ... 3. T. NODOSA

Torilis nodosa
2 1. Inflorescences terminal and sometimes also axillary, consisting of noticeably compound umbels, these short- to long-stalked, relatively long-rayed, the individual umbellets often appearing dense and headlike

3 2. Involucre absent or of 1(2) bract(s); bristles 0.6–1.1 mm long, about as long as the width of the body of the mericarp, spreading at nearly 90° from the fruit ... 1. T. ARVENSIS

Torilis arvensis
4 2. Involucre of 3–10 bracts, often 1 per ray; bristles 0.4–0.8 mm long, slightly shorter than the width of the body of the mericarp, loosely ascending ... 2. T. JAPONICA Torilis japonica
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