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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2013)
Genus Verbena L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 18. 1753
Synonym Obletia Lemon. ex Rozier, Introd. Obs. Phys. Hist. Nat. 367. 1773. Patya Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 296. 1790. Glandularia J. F. Gmel. in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13. 2(2): 920. 1791. Billardiera Moench, Meth. P1. 369. 1794. Shuttleworthia Meisn., P1. Vasc. Gen. 1: 290 & 2: 198. 1839. Uwarowia Bunge, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 7: 278. 1840. Aubletia Jacq. apud Wittstein, Etymolog.-bot. Handwbrterb. 85. 1852. Uerbena Sesse & Moc., P1. Nov. Hisp. 1: 6. 1887. fUelleranthus Small, Fl. Southeast. U. S., ed. 1. 1011 & 1337. 1903. Canadea Patermann, Beitr. Zytol. Verbenac. 13, 43 & [54], pl. 1, fig. 1 & 2. 1935.
Description Herbs, sometimes slightly woody basally; stems and branches procumbent, 3-scending, or erect, glabrous or variously pubescent. Leaves mostly decussate- Dpposite, rarely whorled, dentate (rarely entire) or variously lobed, incised, or pinnatifid. Inflorescences spicate; spikes terminal, usually densely many-flowered, Dften flat-topped and pseudo-umbellate or fasciculate-capitate, sometimes greatly elongate with densely crowded or scattered flowers, rarely also axillary, often greatly elongating only after anthesis. Flowers small or medium-sized, each solitary and axillary in a usually narrow bractlet; calyx usually tubular, 5-angled, 5-ribbed, unequally 5-toothed, not at all or but slightly changed in fruit, then herbaceous, mostly ventricose, eventually split, often connivent or contorted apically, thin-textured; corolla salverform or- funnelform, the tube cylindric, straight or curved, often slightly ampliate or subinflated apically, usually villous at the stamen-insertion within and barbate at the mouth, the limb flat, spreading or oblique, weakly 2-lipped, the lobes 5, usually elongate, more or less unequal, varying from obtuse or rounded to emarginate apically, the 2 posterior outermost and the anterior innermost in prefloration; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the upper half of the corolla-tube, included, the anthers ovate, with 2 parallel or slightly divergent thecae, dehiscing longitudinally, the dorsal connective un- appendaged and narrowly muticous or provided with a more or less conspicuous glandular appendage; gynoecium 2-carpelled, the ovary superior, entire or 4-lobed, apically situated on a somewhat lobed annular disc, completely 4-loculed even at anthesis, the ovules 1 per locule, attached laterally at or near the base, erect, anatropous; the style usually short and equaling the stamens, somewhat dilated, shortly 2-lobed or bifid apically, the anterior lobe or branch stigmatiferous and subpulvinate-papillose, the posterior lobe or branch smooth and horny and non- stigmatiferous, not as broad as the anterior. Fruit mostly enclosed by the mature calyx, schizocarpous, the pericarp hard and dry, readily separating at maturity into 4, 1-seeded linear or linear-oblong (rarely elliptic-winged) crustaceous nut- lets; seeds 4, erect, oblong, triangular in cross-section, without or with negligible endosperm, the outer face convex, the cotyledons 2, thick, applicate.
Habit Herbs
Distribution A complex genus of 392 specific and subspecific taxa native to temperate and tropical America, two species native to the Mediterranean region and the Near East, and introduced elsewhere in the Old World.
Note There are several widely cultivated forms and numerous natural and artificial hybrids. Several American species have become naturalized in various parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Glandularia is perhaps worthy of generic segregation.
Key a. Spikes densely congested with usually closely imbricate flowers; stems and peduncles densely hirsute or villous; calyx 5-6 mm long; corolla 1-2.5 cm wide ...... 1. V. hybrida aa. Spikes elongate and loosely flowered when mature; stems and peduncles scabridulous or subglabrate; calyx 2-2.5 mm long; corolla 2.5-3 mm wide ...... 2. V. litoralis
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