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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/14/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/14/2013)
Genus Bacopa Aubl.
PlaceOfPublication Hist. P1. Guiane 128, tab. 48. 1775.
Note TYPE: B. aquatica Aubl.
Synonym Moniera Juss. ex P. Br., Civ. Nat. Hist. Jam. 269. 1756. nomen rejic. TYPE: Gratiola monnieria L. = Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Monniera, mult. auct., orth. mut. Brami Adans., Fam. P1. 2: 208. 1763. nomen rejic. TYPE: Based on Brami, Rheede, Hort. Malabar. 10: 27, tab. 14. 1689. Bramia Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. 1: 459. 1785. TYPE: B. indica Lam. = Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Mella Vandelli, Fl. Lusit. Bras. Sp. 43. 1788. TYPE: Pub. without species. Septas Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 392. 1790. non Septas L. 1760 (Crassulaceae). TYPE: S. repens Lour. = Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Calytriplex Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. 96. 1794. TYPE: C. obovata R. & P. Herpestis C. F. Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. P1. 3: 186. 1807. TYPE: H. rotundifolia C. F. Gaertner = Bacopa innominaia (Maza) Alain. Herpestes Kunth, Syn. P1. 2: 124. 1823. = Herpestis Gaertn. orth. mut. Habershamia Raf., Neogenyton 2. 1825. LECTOTYPE: Monniera cuneifolia (Michx.) Raf. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Hydranthelium H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. 7. ed. fol. 156. 1825. TYPE: H. callitrichoides H.B.K. Macuillamia Raf., Neogenyton 2. 1825. TYPE: M. rotundifolia (Michx.) Raf. = Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. Geochorda Cham. & Schlecht., Linnaea 3: 11. 1828. TYPE: G. cuneata Cham. & Schlecht. Caconapea Cham., Linnaea 8: 28. 1833. TYPE: C. gratioles Cham. Ranaria Cham., Linnaea 8: 30. 1833. TYPE: R. monnierioides Cham. = Bacopa monnierioides (Cham.) Robinson. Septilia Raf., Fl. Tell. 4: 68. 1836. TYPE: S. repens Raf. = Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Amphianthus Torr., Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 4: 82. 1837. TYPE: A. pusillus Torr. Heinzelmannia Neck. ex Endl., Genera PL. 682. 1839. nomen nudum in syn. Hydrotrida Willd. ex Steud., Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 783. 1840. nomen nudum. TYPE: H. becca- bunga Steud. Heptas Meisn., P1. Vasc. Gen. 293. 1842-43? TYPE: H. repens Meisn. = Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. Ildefonsia Gardner, London J. Bot. 1: 184. 1842. non Schott ex Steudel, Nom. Bot. 427. 1821. nomen nudum. TYPE: I. bibracteata Gardner. Anisocalyx Hance ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 195. 1853. TYPE: A. limanthiflorus Hance - Bacopa mcnnieri (L.) Pennell. Cardiolophus Griff., Not. P1. Asiat. 4: 105. 1854. TYPE: C. decussata Griff. Ranapalus Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 7: 113. 1877. TYPE: R. eisenii Kellogg = Bacopa eisenii (Kellogg) Pennell. Hydrotrida Small, Fl. Miami 165. 1913. LECTOTYPE: H. caroliniana (Walt.) Small = Bacopa caroliniana (Walt.) Robinson. Monocardia Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 72: 155. 1920. TYPE: M. violacea Pennell = Bacopa salzmannii (Benth.) Edwall.
Description Herbs, often paludal, erect or sprawling, often glandular punctate. Leaves opposite, entire or rarely dissected, pinnately or digitately veined, often sessile and somewhat clasping. Inflorescences paniculate or solitary flowers in the axils, sometimes geminate, the pedicels sometimes bracteate. Flowers with the calyx 5-lobed to the base, the outer 3 larger and enclosing the inner 2; corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip entire or 2-lobed, the lower lip 2-lobed, sometimes pubescent; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the upper 1/2 of the tube, the anthers mostly alike, the thecae separate but proximal; ovary 2-carpellate, the ovules numerous, the style mostly straight, the stigma minutely 2-lobed. Capsule conical or obtuse, apically dehiscent into 4 valves, the placenta persistent; seeds oblong, longi- tudinally reticulate.
Habit Herbs
Note This genus is defined by the unequal sepals, the outer three larger and enclosing the narrower inner two. Stamens are usually 4 but may be 2 in some species or even in some plants with usually 4 stamens. The leaves are mostly glabrate and often glandular punctate; stems are glabrate or pilose. The genus is found in a number of habitats but many species are paludal or aquatic. A few species are tolerant of brackish waters.
Distribution range from southern Canada to warm temperate South America and in the Old World.
Key a. Flowers sessile, fruiting pedicels less than 2 mm long; leaves 1 costate or pinnately veined. Plants erect. b. Stems pilose; fruiting calyces more than 3 mm long ...... 1. B. axillaris bb. Stems puberulent or glabrate; fruiting calyces less than 3 mm long. c. Capsules copiously glandular, long; stems glabrous, sparingly glandular; leaves basally narrowed and often appearing petiolate ...... 8. B. sessiliflora cc. Capsules eglandular; stems pubescent with whitish hairs; leaves basally broad and somewhat clasping ...... 5. B. monnierioides aa. Flowers conspicuously pedunculate, fruiting pedicels more than 3 mm long, mostly longer than the leaves; leaves palmately nerved or 1 costate; plants erect, creeping or floating. d. Outer fruiting sepals basally cordate, covering the capsule. e. Fruiting sepals about as long as the pedicels, puberulent; stems puberulent ...... 2. B. bacopoides ee. Fruiting sepals much shorter than the peduncles, long ciliate; stems pilose ......  7. B. salzmannii dd. Outer fruiting sepals basally narrowed, mostly not completely covering the capsule. f. Leaves basally auriculate or hastate; leaves apically obtuse or acute; plants erect ...... 3. B. laxiflora ff. Leaves basally narrowed; apically bluntly obtuse or rounded; plants creeping or floating. g. Leaves narrowly obovate or oblong, 1-nerved, less than 4 mm wide ...... 4. B. monnieri gg. Leaves rotund, sometimes broadly obovate, conspicuously palmately many nerved, mostly more than 5 mm wide ...... 6. B. repens
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