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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/17/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 6/17/2013)
Genus Viguiera H.B.K.
PlaceOfPublication Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 4: 224, tab. 379. 1820.
Note TYPE: V. helianthoides H.B.K. = V. dentata (Cav.) Spreng.
Synonym Hymenostephium Benth. in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. PI. 2: 382. 1873. TYPE: H. mexicanum Benth.
Description Herbs or shrubs; stems and branches mostly slender, puberulent or rarely incanous-tomentose. Leaves opposite, often alternate near the inflorescence, mostly entire or serrate, rarely lobed, chartaceous, occasionally coriaceous or textilous; petioles mostly slender, rarely wanting. Inflorescence a solitary head or paniculate aggregation of heads; bracts foliaceous; bractlets often wanting. Heads mostly radiate, yellow (Panama); involucral bracts in 2-3 series, often dark, slender or broad, mostly alike but often unequal, pubescent; paleas indurate, striate, equalling or exceeding the involucral bracts, the basal, scarious portion completely enfolding the achene; ray florets with a flat pubescent tube, the limb broad or narrow, denticulate or entire, dorsally pubescent, the androecium wanting, the ovary sterile, flat or trigonous, often elongate; disc florets numerous, the tube short, the limb sometimes oblique, pubescent, the 5 lobes dorsally pubescent, the anthers dark, the apical appendages often dorsally glandular, the basal auricles short, the style branches flattened, pilose, with a pilose apicule, the base mostly expanded-globose, stipitate, the ovary somewhat laterally com- pressed, mostly pubescent. Achene compressed-lenticular, sometimes quadrate, unmargined except sometimes at the base, appressed pubescent or glabrous; pappus usually of 2-3 basally broadened awns and intermediate squamellae, the awns or squamellae or both sometimes wanting.
Habit Herbs or shrubs
Note Viguiera may be recognized by its lenticular seeds and uniform, narrowly acute involucral bracts. The pappus may be wanting or may consist of scales or awns or both. The genus is similar to Simsia which has flatter achenes and usually more persistent awns. Suggestions that Viguiera is confused with Helianthus, a genus not occurring in Panama, cannot be maintained. In addition to a number of features noted by other writers, species of Helianthus have a conspicuous annular bulge or corolla bulb (Anderson, 1952) near the base of the disc corolla limb. In Panamanian species of Viguiera, the involucral bracts are in two series, the outermost shorter and more pubescent than the inner series which are slightly erose near the apex. The lobes of the disc corollas are noticeably pubescent outside. Earlier writers who reported Gymnolomia rudbeckioides H.B.K. (1820) from Panama were probably referring to Viguiera cordata. Index Kewensis placed some of the synonyms noted here for Viguiera cordata under Gymnolomia rud- beckioides. Although they had not seen its type collection, both Robinson & Greenman (1899,) and Blake (1918) in their revisions of Gymnolomia and Viguiera distinguished Gymnolomia rudbeckioides from plants of Central America. Gymno- lomia, here lectotypified by G. rudbeckioides, may he the correct name for much of the New World material which has been placed in the genus Aspilia Thouars. Aspilia is based on a strand plant of eastern Madagascar.
Reference Anderson, E. 1952. Details of the flowers of a sunflower. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 40(7): frontispiece. Blake, S. F. 1918. A revision of the genus Viguiera. Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 1-205. Robinson, B. L. & J. M. Greenman. 1899. Revision of the genus Gymnolomia. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 87-108.
Key a. Leaves sessile; ray corollas less than 10 mm long; pappus of awns and squamellae ...... 3. V. tenuis aa. Leaves petiolate; ray corollas more than 10 mm long; pappus of awns, squamellae, or wanting. b. Leaves eglandular beneath; involucral bracts less than 1.5 mm wide; pappus, if present, without awns ...... 1. V. cordata bb. Leaves copiously glandular beneath; some involucral bracts exceeding 2 mm wide; pappus of fimbriate squamellae and 2 basally flattened awns ...... 2. V. sylvatica
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