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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/12/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/12/2013)
Genus Zanthoxylum L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 270. 1753
Note TYPE: Z. ameri- canum Mill.
Synonym Fagara Duhamel, Traite Arb. Arbust. 1: 229. 1755. nomen rejic. contra Fagara L. New name for Zanthoxylum L. Pterota P. Br., Nat. Hist. Jamaica 146. 1756. TYPE: Fagara pterota L. Fagara L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 897. 1759. nomen cons. contra Fagara Duhamel. TYPE: F. pterota L., type cons.
Description Shrubs or trees, rarely scandent; trunks and branches often armed with prickles, the branchIets prickly or unarmed, the bark and wood aromatic. Leaves alternate, odd- or even-pinnate, rarely 1-3 foliolate, persistent or deciduous; petiole and rachis terete or angled, often winged, unarmed or prickly; leaflets opposite to alternate, entire to crenate, frequently inequilateral, pellucid punctate at least marginally, often glandular punctate and with numerous minute peltate scales on both surfaces. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal panicles, some- times corymbose, racemose, or spikelike. Flowers small, regular, white to greenish yellow or red, unisexual or rarely bisexual, the plants dioecious, rarely monoecious or polygamous; sepals 3-5 or apparently absent, free to connate, persistent or deciduous; petals 3-8, free, imbricate or valvate; stamens 3-5, opposite the sepals, rudimentary or absent in carpellate flowers, the filaments free, unappendaged, the anthers elliptic to ovate; intrastaminal disc small and annular or obscure; gynoecium of 1-5, sessile to stipitate, free or connate carpels, rudimentary or absent in staminate flowers; ovary 1-5-loculed, the ovules 2 per locule, collateral, pendulous, the styles sublateral, connate to free, the stigmas capitate, free or connate. Fruits of 1-5 sessile to stipitate, coriaceous to fleshy, 2-valved, 1-seeded, free to connate, glandular-punctate follicles; seeds ovoid, obovoid, subglobose, or lenticular, often remaining attached to the placenta by the funiculus at maturity, the testa crustaceous, black, brownish, or reddish, lustrous, the endosperm fleshy, the embryo axial, straight or curved, the cotyledons flat, the radicle short.
Habit Shrubs or trees
Distribution Zanthoxylum is a genus of over 200 species, primarily pantropical, but extending into the North Temperate Zone in eastern Asia and North America.
Note The genus as here circumscribed is regarded by some as two distinct genera, Zanthoxylum L. and Fagara L. The name Zanthoxylum is applied to species with a single whorl of perianth segments, while Fagara is used for those with two whorls of perianth segments. However, the occurrence of specimens and species of an intermediate condition (Brizicky, 1962; Hartley, 1966) and recent chemical evidence (Fish and Waterman, 1973) indicate that this is an unnatural separation. The American species of Zanthoxylum are badly in need of revision.
Reference Brizicky, G. K. 1962. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Zanthoxylum and Glycosmis (Rutaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 80-93. Fawcett, W. & A. B. Rendle. 1920. Rutaceae in Flora of Jamaica, Vol. 4. pp. 168-195. Fish, F. & P. G. Waterman. 1973. Chemosystematics in the Rutaceae II. The chemosystematics of the Zanthoxylum/Fagara complex. Taxon 22: 177-203. Hartley, T. G. 1966. A revision of the Malasian species of Zanthoxylum (Ruta- ceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 171-221. Wiggins, I. L. & D. M. Porter. 1971. Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Stanford, California.
Key a. Leaf petioles and rachises winged ...... 5. Z. fagara aa. Leaf petioles and rachises not winged. b. Leaves pubescent with stellate trichomes. c. Leaflets oblong to oblong lanceolate, the margins crenulate ...... 1. Z. belizense cc. Leaflets narrowly elliptic, the margins coarsely crenate ...... 9. Z. microcarpum bb. Leaves glabrous or pubescent with simple trichomes. d. Leaflets pellucid punctate throughout the blade. e. Leaflets glabrous. f. Leaflets 3; flowers 4-merous ...... 7. Z. limoncello ff. Leaflets 9-13; flowers 5-merous ......n3. Z. elephantiasis ee. Leaflets pubescent, at least on the main veins beneath. g. Leaflets hispidulous beneath, especially on the veins; flowers 5- carpelled ...... 15. Z. setulosum gg. Leaflets minutely puberulent or strigillose to scabridulous beneath; flowers 3-4-carpelled. h. Leaflets scabridulous; inflorescence branches red tomentose ...... 11. Z. pittieri hh. Leaflets minutely puberulent to strigillose; inflorescence branches minutely puberulent to strigillose, the trichomes yellow or white. i. Leaflets 2.5-6.5 cm long, 1.3-2.7 cm wide; carpels free, the mature follicles 1 per flower ...... 6. Z. jaimei ii. Leaflets 5.5-22.0 cm long, 2.9-8.5 cm wide; carpels con- nate, the mature follicles mostly 3 per flower. j. Leaflets 9-14; follicles strigillose ...... 10. Z. panamense jj. Leaflets 7; follicles glabrous ...... 4. Z. eliasii dd. Leaflets pellucid punctate only at the margins. k. Leaflets minutely puberulent above along the impressed midveins. 1. Leaflets markedly inequilateral basally; flowers red, sepals with a conspicuous red abaxial gland; follicles glabrous ...... 2. Z. chiriquinum 11. Leaflets not markedly inequilateral basally; flowers greenish yellow to white, sepals without an abaxial gland; follicles minutely puberulent. m. Leaflets (3-)7-9(-10), subcoriaceous, with many small im- pressed punctations on both the surfaces ...... 14. Z. scheryi mm. Leaflets 5-7, thick and coriaceous, with many small impressed punctations and peltate glands on both the surfaces ...... 8. Z. melanostictum kk. Leaflets glabrous. n. Leaflets membranaceous, the margins crenate; flowers 5-merous ...... 13. Z. pucro nn. Leaflets subcoriaceous to coriaceous, the margins crenulate; flowers 3-merous. o. Leaflets 7.5-21.0 cm long, 2.3-7.2 cm wide ...... 12. Z. procerum oo. Leaflets 2.2-7.2 cm long, 0.8-1.8 cm wide ...... 16. Z. tripetalum
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