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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/31/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/31/2013)
Genus pomoea L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 159. 1753
Note LECTOTYPE: 1. pestigridis L.
Synonym Quamoclit Moench, Meth. Bot. 453. 1794. LECTOTYPE: lpomoea coccinea L. Batatas Choisy, MWm. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 434. 1833. LECTOTYPE: B. edulis Choisy = Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. Pharbitis Choisy, MWm. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 438. 1833. LECTOTYPE: P. hispida Choisy = Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. Calonyction Choisy, MWm. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 441. 1833. LECTOTYPE: C. speciosum Choioy = Ipomoea alba L. Exogonium Choisy, MWm. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 443. 1833. LECTOTYPE: Ipomoea bracteata Cav.
Description Vines, shrubs or trees, usually twining, sometimes prostrate or floating. Leaves mostly petiolate, often variable in shape and size on the same plant, entire, lobed, divided, or rarely compound, the petiole occasionally with pseudostipules. Flowers mostly in axillary 1- to many-flowered dichasia, rarely paniculate; sepals herbaceous or subcoriaceous, variable in size and shape, glabrous or pubescent, often somewhat enlarged in fruit; corolla small to large, regular, or rarely slightly zygomorphic, mostly funnelform or campanulate, less often tubular or salverform, purple, red, pink, white, or yellow, the limb shallowly or rarely deeply lobed, the interplicae well defined by 2 distinct nerves; stamens included or rarely ex- serted, the filaments filiform, often triangular-dilated at the base, mostly un- equal in length; the pollen pantoporate, globose, spinulose; ovary usually 2- or
Habit Vines, shrubs or trees
Description sometimes 4-locular, 4-ovulate, rarely 3-locular, 6-ovulate, glabrous or pubescent, the style simple, filiform, included or rarely exserted, the stigma capitate, entire or often 2(-3)-globose. Fruits globose or ovoid capsules, mostly 4(-6)-valved or rarely splitting irregularly; seeds 4, (6, or less), glabrous or pubescent.
Distribution This is the largest genus-complex in the family with about 500 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres.
Note The species-groups here included in Ipomoea have been recognized as genera, subgenera, and sec- tions. Evidence suggests that some of these species-groups may be natural, while others are certainly polyphyletic. Convergent evolution in several characters appears to account for part of the difficulty in delimiting natural taxa, e.g. Quamo- clit and Exogonium both have flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination; Quamoclit seems to be monophyletic, while Exogonium is polyphyletic. Part of Exogonim probably has its closest alliance with the Pharbitis species. Much study is needed to determine relationships and, in spite of obscuring some ap- parent relationships, it seems best to consider the group in the broad sense at this time. Two revisions of Ipomoea consider the species-groups in a restricted sense, House (1908) and Matuda (1964-1965). One of these treatments is limited by its age, the other by geographic range. O'Donell (1959) updated House's previous (1909) treatment of Quamoclit, and his study indicates the naturalness of the group. The species relegated to Calonyction have been studied by Gunn (1972). Gunn's study and our study of the species (Austin & Conroy, unpub- lished data) indicate that this taxon is unnatural. As has been pointed out by Standley and Williams (1970), many species of Ipomoea range widely and a detailed comparison of North and South American species will probably result in more changes of present alignments. There is documentation for 31 species in Panama.
Reference Gunn, C. R. Moonflowers, Ipomoea section Calonyction, in temperate North America. Brittonia 24: 150-168. 1972. House, H. D. The North American Species of the Genus Ipomoea. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 18: 181-263. 1908. House, H.D. Studies in North American Convolvulaceae-V. Quamoclit. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 595-603. 1909. Matuda, E. El genero Ipomoea en Mexico. Ann. Inst. Biol. 24: 85-145; 25: 45-47; 26: 83-106. 1964-1965. O'Donell, C. A. Las especies Americanas de Ipomoea L. sect. Quamoclit (Moench) Griseb. Lilloa 29: 19-86. 1959. Standley, P. C. & L. 0. Williams. Convolvulaceae. In "Flora of Guatemala." Fieldiana, Bot. 24(9): 4-85. 1970.
Key KEY TO IPOMOEA GRouPs a. Corollas salverform, the long narrow tube only slightly widened near or above the middle (occasional exception in I. ptwrga), abruptly flaring near summit; anthers ex- serted (except I. macrantha); either open during night and closing in early morning or open most of day. b. Sepals and stems covered with large fleshy trichome-like structures (I. setosa) ...... Group 4. Eriospermum bb. Sepals glabrous or slightly puberulent. c. Corolla tube 6-14 cm long, the limb and tube white or partially green; flowers open during night and closing in early morning -Group 6. Calonyction cc. Corolla tube 2-8 cm long, the limb and tube red-purple, red to orange or yel- low (white in a cultivar of I. quamoclit); flowers open during mornings or all day. d. Corolla 2-3.5 cm long, red to orange or yellow (rarely white); sepals with abruptly constricted, long fleshy-caudate apices or mucronate ...... Group 8. Quamoclit dd. Corolla 6-8 cm long, lavender to red-purple; sepals apically obtuse and cuspidate ...... Group 7. Exogonium aa. Corolla funnelform to campanulate, the short to long tubes expanding from below the middle, gradually or abruptly flaring near summit; anthers mostly included; open dur- ing morning, closing near noon. e. Glabrous perennials with procumbent stems, not normally twining; habitat of coastal dunes and beaches or inland waterway margins; leaves fleshy or leathery; sepals elliptic-oblong to orbicular ...... Group 3. Erpipomoea ee. Glabrous or pubescent annuals or perennials with twining or erect stems, not normally rooting at nodes (except in cultivated forms of I. batatas); habitat vari- ous; leaves chartaceous to fleshy; sepals acuminate to suborbicular. f. Sepals herbaceous; sepals, peduncles or pedicels with reflexed or erect trichomes (except I. acuminata); stigma lobes 3 and the ovary 3-4-locular, each locule bi-ovulate; corollas blue, red, or white ...... Group 1. Pharbitis ff. Sepals coriaceous or membranaceous, rarely herbaceous; sepals, peduncles and pedicels glabrous or at least without reflexed trichomes; stigma lobes 2 and the ovary 2(-3)-locular, each locule uniovulate; corollas mostly lavender, sometimes blue or white. g. Sepals mostly coriaceous; large, perennial vines or shrubs; seeds oblong, comose at least on margins; corollas mostly large and funnelformn ...... Group 4. Eriospeermum gg. Sepals membranaceous to chartaceous; smaller annual or perennial vines; seeds suborbicular or pyriform, mostly glabrous, if pubescent not comose; corollas small to large, funnelform to campanulate. h. Leaves pedately dissected ...... Group 5. Orthipomoea hh. Leaves entire-cordate to shallowly 3- or 5-lobed but not pedately dis- sected. i. Sepals with prominent white or pale scarious or subscarious margins, the outer sepals to 1/2 or 23 as long as the inner, apex acute to rounded, non-apiculate; seeds pyriform ...... Group 5. Orthipomoea ii. Sepals without prominent white or pale scarious or subscarious mar- gins, the outer sepals mostly about the same length as the inner (outer sepals shorter in I. trifida), apex acute to acuminate, apiculate to mucronate; seeds suborbicular ...... Group 2. Batatas Group 1. PHARBITIS Pharbitis Choisy, MWm. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 438. 1833. TYPE: I. pturpurea (L.) Roth. Ipomoea sect. Pharbitis (Choisy) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 473. 1864. I. subg. Pharbitis (Choisy) Clarke, Fl. Brit. India 4: 199. 1883. a. Sepals glabrous or soft-pubescent outside with slender trichomes. b. Foliaceous bracts at the bases of the pedicels; sepals minutely aculeolate along the costa ...... 5. I. setifera bb. Squamiform bracts at the bases of the pedicels; sepals smooth to appressed pubes- cent along the costa ...... 1. I. acuminata aa. Sepals hispid-pilose outside with long spreading trichomes. c. Corollas 2-3 cm long; inflorescences dense and capitate ...... 2. I. meyeri cc. Corollas 4-8 cm long; inflorescences open. d. Sepals with slightly narrowed green tips shorter to slightly longer than the body ...... 4. I. purpurea dd. Sepals with very narrow elongate green tips much longer than the body. e. Sepals abruptly narrowed, the long subacute tips strongly spreading or curved ...... I. hedelacea ee. Sepals gradually narrowed, the long acute tips suberect, straight, scarcely spreading ...... 3. I. nil
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