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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 76. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus of about 90 species in temperate regions; 17 species occur in Pakistan, 1 of them introduced.
Comment/Acknowledgements: The presence of either Bromus arvensis Linn. (lemmas less than 6.5 mm, horny, angled, palea equalling lemma, grain inrolled at maturity, anthers (3-)4-5 mm long) or Bromus commutatus Schrad. (lemmas 8-11 mm, horny, smooth or angled, awns straight, terete, arising less than 1 mm from lemma tip, anthers 1-2.5 mm long) in Pakistan has not been confirmed. It is probable that both have been recorded in error. Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult. (perennial, glabrous and glaucous) was recorded for the flora on the basis of incorrectly determined material.


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Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades sometimes auriculate; sheaths usually hairy. Panicle usually fairly large and open, sometimes dense and contracted. Spikelets usually large, the lemmas well exserted from the glumes and awned from the sinus of the 2-toothed tip or from just below it, rarely with just an awn-point or mucro. Styles arising laterally from just below the hairy apex of the ovary.

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1 Lemmas rounded on the back (2)
+ Lemmas strongly laterally compressed and keeled (Bromus Sect. Ceratochloa) Bromus catharticus
2 (1) Lemmas 1-awned or rarely awnless, if 3-awned then lemmas not or scarcely widened above the middle into an obtuse angle (3)
+ Lemmas, or at least the upper, 3-awned, widened above the middle into a very distinct, obtuse angle (Bromus Sect. Triniusa) Bromus danthoniae
3 (2) Spikelets ovate, lanceolate, elliptic or oblong, tapering towards the tip, opening at anthesis, usually closing at maturity; lower glume 3-7-nerved; upper glume 5-9-nerved (Bromus Sect. Bromus) (4)
+ Spikelets oblong or wedge-shaped, not elliptic nor lanceolate and not tapering towards the tip, gaping at maturity; lower glume 1-nerved (3-nerved in B. sericeus); upper glume 3-nerved (5-nerved in B. sericeus) (9)
4 (3) Panicle dense, erect, sometimes interrupted or verticillate; panicle branches and pedicels much shorter than the spikelets (5)
+ Panicle lax, erect or nodding, somewhat contracted only when young or depauperate; at least some panicle branches and pedicels as long as or longer than the spikelets (6)
5 (4) Lemma 3-5 mm wide; caryopsis oblanceolate, more than 1 mm wide; panicle ovoid to ovoid oblong, sometimes with few spikelets Bromus hordeaceus
+ Lemma not more than 2 mm wide; caryopsis narrowly elliptical, c.l mm wide; panicle ovoid cuneate or verticillate Bromus scoparius
6 (4) Panicle lax, nodding; pedicels mostly longer than their spikelets (7)
+ Panicle lax, erect; pedicels mostly equalling or shorter than their spikelets; spikelets (excluding the awns) 20-40 mm long; lemmas 11-15 mm long Bromus lanceolatus
7 (6) Lower glume up to about 9 mm long; spikelets (excluding the awns) up to 30 mm long (8)
+ Lower glume 9-11 mm long; lemmas (11-) 12-18 mm long; spikelets (excluding the awns) 30-50 mm long Bromus oxyodon
8 (7) Lemmas coriaceous, markedly rhomboid with inconspicuous nerves and blunt teeth; margins of lemmas overlapping at maturity; awn usually strongly reflexed Bromus japonicus
+ Lemmas papery, evenly curved along the margins with conspicuous nerves and usually acuminate teeth; margins of lemmas somewhat inrolled at maturity and lemmas slightly divaricate; awn usually straight and erect, rarely curved Bromus pectinatus
9 (3) Tufted or rhizmatous perennials (Bromus Sect. Pnigma) (10)
+ Annuals (15)
10 (9) Awn fine, usually shorter than the lemma, straight at maturity, sometimes absent (11)
+ Awn stout, at least as long as the lemma, straight or recurved at maturity Bromus porphyranthos
11 (10) Rhizomes long and creeping, plants with few or solitary culms, rarely the culms somewhat tufted but then the inflorescence a raceme (12)
+ Rhizomes short or wanting, plants laxly to densely tufted Bromus ramosus
12 (11) Lemmas glabrous or scabrid with minute appressed bristles, rarely somewhat appressed hairy on the lower part (13)
+ Lemmas densely hairy all over the back and on the side nerves Bromus confinis
13 (12) Spikelets with awns 2-5 mm long; lemmas very slightly roughened with minute appressed bristles (14)
+ Spikelets awnless or with awn-points up to 1.5 mm long; lemmas glabrous or rarely somewhat hairy at the base; plant mostly glabrous Bromus inermis
14 (13) Velutinous greyish-green plants, densely hairy on leaves, sheaths and stems Bromus tomentosus
+ Culms glabrous; leaves and sheaths green, hispid or sparsely long-hairy Bromus stenostachyus
15 (9) Awn 1-2 times the length of the lemma; lemma elliptic or lanceolate in side view (Bromus Sect. Genea) (16)
+ Awn 4-6 times the length of the lemma; lemma oblanceolate in side view (Bromus Sect. Nevskiella) Bromus gracillimus
16 (15) Lower glume 1-nerved; upper glume 3-nerved; lowest lemma 10-14 mm long with an awn 10-15 mm long Bromus tectorum
+ Lower glume 3(-rarely 1)-nerved; upper glume 5-nerved; lowest lemma 18-25 mm long with an awn 15-45 mm long Bromus sericeus

Lower Taxa
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