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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 325. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus of over 200 species, represented in Pakistan by c .16 species, chiefly of wet habitats in mountainous regions.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Plants of this genus are called ‘Rushes’ and the tall species may be used in making mats, baskets and netting chairs etc.


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Perennial, rarely annual herbs, usually rhizomatous, often tufted. Leaves either all radical or both radical and few cauline, flat to cylindrical, glabrous, with or with-out transverse septa, sheaths open, auricled or not. Inflorescence terminal or seemingly lateral with the basal bract often leaf-like and apparently continuous with the stem; floral bracts much smaller, hyaline to submembranous. Flowers small, clustered, few or solitary, sessile or subsessile, often brownish or greenish. Perianth segments 6, glumaceous, equal or the inner ones shorter. Stames 6 or 3, free or somewhat connate to the base of perianth segments, filaments filiform, usually longer than anthers. Capsule often brown, shortly to conspicuously beaked, 1.3-celled; seeds minute, usually many on parietal placentas, generally confined to the middle of the valves, ovoid to oblong, faintly to conspicuously striate, yellowish to brownish, sometimes tailed, often mucilaginous on wetting.

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1 Individual flower subtended by a pair of short, hyaline bracteoles at the base (2)
+ Individual flower without subtending bracteoles (4)
2 (1) Perennials. Flowers crowded on a short, simple or branched, terminal or seemingly lateral inflorescence (3)
+ Annual. Flowers solitary (sometimes 2-3 together) and somewhat distant on the lax inflorescence Juncus bufonius
3 (2) Inflorescence seemingly lateral. Leaves basal only, usually reduced to obtuse sheaths Juncus inflexus
+ Inflorescence terminal. Leaves basal and 1-2 cauline, blade bearing Juncus compressus
4 (1) Flowers in ± capitate heads (5)
+ Inflorescence paniculate, seemingly lateral. Flowers mostly in groups of twos or threes Juncus maritimus
5 (4) Inflorescence usually of a single terminal head (very rarely more than 1) (6)
+ Inflorescence branched, compound, of usually 2-many, terminal heads (11)
6 (5) Cauline leaves present, 1-3 (7)
+ Cauline leaves absent (9)
7 (6) Stem slender, 1-3-leaved. Flowers usually 8-20 in a head, 6-7 mm long. Capsules ± exserted; seeds tailed (8)
+ Stem filiform with 1 cauline leaf. Flowers 3-5(7) in a head, 4-5 mm long. Capsules not exserted; seeds hardly tailed Juncus benghalensis
8 (7) Anthers c. 1.5 mm long. Capsules ± straight Juncus membranaceus
+ Anthers 2-3 mm long. Capsules ± arcuate Juncus membranaceus
9 (6) Capsules 4-5 mm long, as long as the perianth. Flowering head usually 4-8-flowered (10)
+ Capsules 6-7.5 mm long, c. twice as long as the perianth. Flowering head usually 2-3 (-4)- flowered Juncus triglumis
10 (9) Lowest subtending bract not or slightly exceeding the brown flowering head. Plants deep green, densely caespitose Juncus thomsonii
+ Lowest subtending bract usually much exceeding the whitish flowering head. Plants greenish, loosely tufted Juncus leucomelas
11 (5) Inflorescence of 2-3(-5) heads, usually of unequal sizes (12)
+ Inflorescence usually of many heads, ± of equal sizes (13)
12 (11) Flowering heads seemingly superposed or shortly stalked. Capsules ± exceeding the perianth, 5-9 mm long; seeds whitish-tailed at the ends Juncus sphacelatus
+ Flowering heads umbellate, conspicuously stalked, whitish. Capsules not exceeding the perianth, c. 2.5(-3) mm long; seeds not whitish-tailed Juncus elegans
13 (11) Plants slender, with 2-10 cauline, linear or filiform leaves; basal leaves with a blade. Flowers 4-12 in each head, 2.5-4(-4.5) mm long. Capsules ± exceeding the perianth, 30-40-seeded (14)
+ Plant robust, with 1, sharply tipped cauline leaf, about as long and thick as the stem; basal leaves reduced to sheaths only. Flowers usually 20-40 in each head, c. 2 mm long. Capsules not or hardly exceeding the perianth, less than 20-seeded Juncus punctorius
14 (13) Stamens 6. Leaves conspicuously septate, terete, curved. Perianth segments lanceolate, acute to subobtuse. Capsules usually oblong-ovoid, abruptly beaked or pyramidate (15)
+ Stamens 3 (occasionally more). Leaves flat, linear or filiform. Perianth segments linear-lanceolate to subulate, vary acute. Capsules conical with acute tip, beaked Juncus prismatocarpus
15 (14) Flowering heads usually semiglobose; smaller. Capsules oblong-ovoid abruptly beaked Juncus articulatus
+ Flowering head globose, longer. Capsules pyramidate Juncus kotschyi

Lower Taxa
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