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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)
Contributor J. A. DUKE
Description Perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees, often rhizomatous, occasionally armed. Leaves alternate, radical or crowded at the ends of spur branches, stipulate or exstipulate, simple, binate, trifoliate or pinnate, membranaceous and deciduous to coriaceous and evergreen. Flowers bisexual, cyclic, actinomorphic, solitary, race- mose, spicate or paniculate, the perianth imbricate, usually multiseriate, the outermost whorl often grading into bracteoles (prophylls). Perianth whorls mostly trimerous, occasionally dimerous or pentamerous, often yellow, the segments usually free. Stamens usually in two whorls, lhypogynous, the anthers usually bilocular and valvate (occasionally longitudinally dehiscent). Carpels usually solitary, uni- to pluriovulate, the placentation parietal or basal, the styles and stigmata usually simple. Fruit a berry, capsule or rarely an achene, the seeds anatropous, occasionally arillate, albuminous, the embryo straight and small.
Habit herbs
Distribution A small family of about ten genera and 500 species, mostly of north-temperate latitudes, the Berberidaceae are represented among Panamanian collections solely by Berberis nigricans from Chiriqui. Species of the genera Mahonia, Berberis and Nandina are cultivated in temperate regions and might appear in upland gardens of Central America.
Note Mahonia paniculata, with imparipinnate leaves with 7-8 pairs of spinulose-serrate leaflets and with broad paniculate inflorescences, has been collected on some Costa Rican volcanoes, and might be expected in upland Chiriqui.
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