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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/17/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/17/2013)
Family Clusiaceae
Contributor W. G. D'ARCY
Description Trees or shrubs, sometimes epiphytic, rarely scandent, dioecious polygamous or with perfect flowers; sap often milky, white or yellow, often resinous; oil glands or passages always present, occurring in leaves and other parts. Leaves opposite, simple, entire, mostly evergreen, often coriaceous, the costa mostly conspicuous, the minor venation obscure in vivo, evident and offering many characters on drying; stipules mostly wanting, an axillary pit or other structure sometimes present. Inflorescences cymose, sometimes condensed and subum- bellate or fasciculate, sometimes reduced to solitary flowers; leaves subtending the inflorescences often variously modified into bracts; scale-like, cucullate brac- teoles usually present at the nodes of the inflorescence and sometimes subtending the pedicels of flowers where they may be difficult to distinguish from sepals; pedicels sometimes angled. Flowers mostly white, yellowish or pinkish, mostly regular, the perianth cyclical or spiral, often decussate; the axis convex or flat; sepals 2-14, imbricate, sometimes partly or wholly connate; petals 2-14, mostly free, imbricate, sometimes convolute; stamens mostly numerous, free or var- iously united, the outer ones often reduced, in pistillate flowers variously reduced in number, structure or obsolete; a disc sometimes present; ovary 1-10-locular, the carpels basally or entirely fused, indefinite or fixed in number, 1-10, the ovules 1 to many per locule, anatropous, the placentation various, the styles often free, sometimes wanting, the stigmas various but mostly flat. Fruit mostly cap- sular, sometimes baccate or drupaceous, often commestible and bird or mammal dispersed; seeds 1 to many, often enveloped by a colored aril which may be of differing histological origins; endosperm wanting.
Habit Trees or shrubs
Note The Guttiferae include about 40 genera with about 1,000 species, almost all tropical. Several genera are common to both New and Old Worlds, a distribution believed to reflect ancient land positions, and a few species are also common to more than one continent, perhaps also but less surely reflecting ancient land continuities. Species are best known from mature forests. Plants of the Guttiferae can often be recognized by their coriaceous, penni- nerved leaves and colored sap. Many species are epiphytic shrubs, and many have stilt roots. Axillary pits or other structures are frequently present on the petioles. The Guttiferae provide many kinds of timber and many useful gums and resins. A number of trees are cultivated for ornament. Some species bear edible fruits.
Reference Croat, T. B. 1978. Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford Univ. Press. Engler, A. 1925. Guttiferae. In Die Natfirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2. 12: 154- 237. Grisebach, M. A. 1861. Notice sur le genre Rheedia. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 4. 15: 231-235. Kunth, C. S. 1821. Guttiferae. In A. B. Bonpland & A. de Humboldt, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum. 5: 198-204. Planchon, J. E. & J. Triana. 1860-61. Memoire sur la famille des guttiferes. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 4. 13: 306-376; 14: 226-367; 15: 240-319. Planchon, J.E. & J. Triana. 1861. Reponse aux critiques de M. le Professeur Grisebach relativement aux genres Rheedia et Mammea. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 4. 15: 236-239. Standley, P. C. & L. 0. Williams. 1961. Guttiferae. In Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Bot. 24, 7(1): 36-61. Vasconcellos, N. C., J. J. C. Carvalho, T. A. P. de Andrade & M. E. van den Berg. 1972. 0 polen em plantas da Amazonia. Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goldi 44: 4-10. Vesque, J. 1889. Epharmosis sive materiae ad instruendam anatoniam. Pars secunda. Paris. Vesque, J. 1893. Guttiferae. In A. & C. de Candolle, Monographiae Phanerogamarum. 8. Paris.
Key a. Inflorescences elongate, unbranched racemes; fruit linear with a narrow beak terminated by the globose stigma ...... 8. Marila aa. Inflorescences cymose, if racemose then short; fruit ovoid to ellipsoid, if narrow then unbeaked and with 5 or more stigmas. b. Leaves with many straight lateral veins and no minor venation. c. Fruits indehiscent; leaves basally obtuse to rounded ...... 1. Calophyllum cc. Fruits dehiscent; leaves basally narrowed and abruptly narrowed into the short petiole ...... 11. Tovomita bb. Leaves with minor venation, the lateral veins often arcuate and forking. d. Fruits indehiscent, styles mostly united or obsolete. e. Epiphytic shrubs; fruit less than 8 mm long ...... 3. Clusiella ee. Free standing trees; fruit more than 8 mm long. f. Petiole without a margined pit adaxially at the base. g. Flowers pink, globose; stamens 5, united into a column; sepals 5; leaves less than 3 cm wide ...... 10. Symphonia gg. Flowers white, rotate; stamens numerous, free; sepals 2; leaves more than 5 cm wide ...... 7. Mammea ff. Petiole with a margined pit adaxially at the base (Fig. 4, 8B-C). h. Stamens free; native species ...... 9. Rheedia hh. Stamens united into bundles; cultivated species ...... 5. Garcinia dd. Fruits indehiscent, styles mostly divaricate or obsolete. i. Ovules 2 to many per carpel; seeds numerous; plants often epiphytic. j. Flowers 4-merous; stamens (staminodes) 4 in both staminate and pistillate flowers; fruit apically 4-lobed, 4-carpellate, the stigmas erect on the depressed apex ...... 6. Havetiopsis J. Flowers with 2-10 perianth parts; stamens mostly more than 4 or wanting; fruit more than 4-carpellate, the stigmas often stalked, not depressed ...... 2. Clusia ii. Ovules 1-2 per carpel; seeds few; plants mostly free standing. k. Outer perianth partly or completely fused in bud; petiole bases some-times with conspicuous axillary structures. 1. Outer perianth completely fused in bud; petiole bases lacking axillary structures ...... 11. Tovomita 11. Outer perianth only basally fused in bud; petioles with large basal axillary structures ...... 4. Dystovomita kk. Perianth members all free, often imbricate; petiole bases lacking axillary structures ...... 12. Tovomitopsis
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