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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 4/2/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 4/2/2013)
Contributor WILL H. BLACKWELL, JR.
Description Trees or shrubs with milky latex (lactiferous sacs present in the pith and cortex and the leaves and fruit), glabrous or pubescent (the trichomes unicellular and 2-armed). Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, petiolate, estipulate; blades simple, entire, often leathery, penninerved. Flowers usually I , regular, axillary to leaves and/or leaf-scars, fasciculate or occasionally solitary, the pedicels ses- sile; sepals 4-12, imbricate or spiralled, in one or two whorls, free or united only at the base; corolla gamopetalous, the lobes 4-8, shorter or longer than the tube, as many as or fewer than (rarely more than) the sepals, with or without basal petaloid appendages; stamens epipetalous, usually equal in number to and op- posite the corolla-lobes, an outer antisepalous whorl of staminodes often present (typically equal in number to and appearing to be in the same whorl with the stamens); ovarv superior, (1-)4 to 14-carpelled and -loculed, completely septate, with 1 ascending, lateral or basal, anatropous, bitegmic ovule in each locule, the style single, entire or lobed at the summit. Fruit a berry, often fleshy, the exocarp frequently becoming corky or sclerotic; seeds 1-several, large, with or without endosperm, the testa hard and shiny, the scar lateral to basal, large or small.
Habit Trees or shrubs
Distribution A family of about 40 genera and 600 species, widespread in the tropics of the Newv and Old World; six genera occur in Panama. Several representatives are economically important.
Key a. Each corolla-lobe with. a pair of petaloid appendages arising from the base (the appendages dorsal or lateral), if these lacking then the sepals in two dis- tinct whorls of three each; staminodes present and petaloid. b. Sepals biseriate (3 + 3); corolla-lobe appendages dorsal or absmnt; ovules attached laterally; seed-scar lateral or essentially so, equalling or extend- ing beyond the middle of the seed ......................... 1. Manilkara bb. Sepals not in two distinct whorls though sometimes quincuncial; corolla- lobe appendages lateral; ovules attached basilaterally; seed-scar basal or basilateral, not reaching the middle of the seed. c. Plants unarmed; flowers borne at defoliated nodes only; ovary glabrous, the style 1.5-2 mm long; apex of fruit abruptly tapering to the persistent style; seeds with endosperm ................... 2. Dipholis cc. Plants often with spines; flowers axillary to leaves and occasionally also leaf-scars; ovary pubescent, the style 3-7 mm long; apex of fruit rounded or subtruncate, not tapering to the style; seeds lacking en- dosperm ................... 3. Bwunelia aa. Corolla-lobes lacking appendages; sepals usually uniseriate (though often strongly imbricate or spiralled), if distinctly biseriate then 2 + 2; staminodes present (often not petaloid) or absent. d. Secondary lateral veins more or less paralleling the primary laterals; staminodes absent ....................... 4. Chrysophyllum dd. Secondary laterals not paralleling (often essentially perpendicular to) the primary laterals; staminodes present (frequently scale-like or linear- lanceolate or filiform, occasionally petaloid). e. Leaf-blades usually canaliculate above the midvein, the channel terminating in a small pouch at the base of the blade; petiole usually l/2 the length of the blade or more; ovary glabrate; seed-scar often elongate but not reaching the middle of the seed; endosperm present .5............... 5. Mastichodendroon ee. Leaf-blades not as above; petiole less than 1/2 the blade length; ovary conspicuously pubescent; seed-scar excteding the middle of the s2ed; endosperm lacking ............ 6. Pouteriu
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