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Published In: Genera Plantarum 376–377. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
General/Distribution: A family of about 58 genera and nearly 900 species, cosmopolitan in distribution but mainly in tropics and subtropics. Represented in Pakistan by 6 genera and c. 21 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to Mr. I.C. Hedge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, for going through the manuscript.


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Trees or shrubs, rarely climbers. Leaves simple, alternate, or sub-opposite, coriacious, 3-8 nerved, generally stipulate, evergreen or deciduous, sometimes modified into spines. Inflorescence axillary cymes, corymbs, racemes, spikes, or panicles or fasciculate; flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, small, perigynous. Calyx tubular, 5-rarely4-or 6-lobed. Petals 5, rarely 4 or 6, sometimes absent, usually clawed and cucullate. Stamens as many as petals, inserted opposite to the petals, often enclosed within their folds. Disc fleshy, intra-staminal, filling and covering the hypanthium, glabrous, rarely tomentose, ovary superior to inferior, (1-) 2-3 (-4) locular, ovule 1 in each locule, style 2-4 fid. Fruit often drupaceous, pyrenes 1-3 (-4), 1-2 seeded, or capsule, rarely samaroid. Seed with a large erect embryo, endosperm copious or scanty.

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1 Erect shrubs or trees, rarely scandent (2)
+ Plants climbing by means of tendrils 1 Helinus
2 (1) Fruit with 1-3 pyrenes each 1-2-seeded (3)
+ Fruit (2-) 3 (-4) pyrenes or cocci which are 1 seeded; (testa membranous or crustaceous) (5)
3 (2) Leaves penninerved; stipules not spiny (4)
+ Leaves 3(-5) nerved; stipules spiny 5 Ziziphus
4 (3) Ovary incompletely 2-celled. Drupe with 1 pyrene 4 Rhamnella
+ Ovary completely 2-celled. Drupe with 2 pyrenes 2 Berchemia
5 (2) Flowers pedicellate in axillary fascicles or in simple or compound racemes. Disc not fleshy, thin and lining the calyx tube. Leaves mosty alternate 6 Rhamnus
+ Flowers sessile in terminal panicles. Disc fleshy filling the calyx tube. Leaves opposite, rarely sub-oppsite 3 Sageretia
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