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Published In: Genera Plantarum 296. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.
General/Distribution: A large family comprising 150 genera and c. 1200 species (wild and cultivated) distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of SE. Asia, Mediterranean countries, N. America, Australia and S. Africa.

The members of the family are strongly aromatic, containing essential oils. Many genera show hardy and xerophytic characters.

Represented in Pakistan by 11 genera and 27 species, many of which have been naturalized here, being cultivated and hybridized for edible, medicinal and ornamental purposes.

Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480 and to Mr. C. Townsend, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & Mr. I.C. Hedge, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for their helpful suggestions.


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Usually evergreen perennial trees and shrubs, rarely herbs or climbers; glandular punctate. Leaves simple or compound, sometimes reduced to spines, alternate or opposite, exstipulate. Inflorescence solitary, axillary or terminal cymes, panicles, rarely simple racemes. Flowers bisexual or sometimes staminate. Sepals (3-) 4-5, free or basally united. Petals (3-) 4-5, imbricate. Stamens equal or twice the number of petals or more, filaments free or mono- or poly-adelphous. Ovary 4-5-locular, superior; styles free or united, as many as the carpels. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupe or schizocarp. Placentation axile. Seeds oblong or reniform.

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1 Leaves simple (2)
+ Leaves compound (4)
2 (1) Stamens more than 5, free or polyadelphous. Fruit capsular or hesperidium (3)
+ Stamens 4-5 Fruit a fleshy drupe Skimmia
3 (2) Stamens 4-10 times the petals, polyadelphous, filaments compressed at base. Fruit a fleshy hesperidium Citrus
+ Stamens 10, filaments subulate, pubescent/barbate inside. Fruit a capsule, usually dehiscent Haplophyllum
4 (1) Flowers not large. Petals less than 3 cm long. None of the petals declinate (5)
+ Flowers long and showy. Petals c. 3 cm long, with the lowest petals declinate Dictamnus
5 (4) Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets more than 3 (6)
+ Leaves tri-foliolate Poncirus
6 (5) Leaflets neither obovate nor obcordate. Gynophore absent (7)
+ Leaflets obovate to obcordate. Ovary with a gynophore Capsule splitting Boenninghausenia
7 (6) Flowers bisexual. Fruit a berry (8)
+ Flowers usually unisexual. Fruit a schizocarp, splitting or not Zanthoxylum
8 (7) Leaflets 1-5. Stamens 8-many and of the same length (9)
+ Leaflets 5-27. Stamens 5+5, filaments alternately short Murraya
9 (8) Fruit 5-10 cm in diameter. Rind woody (10)
+ Fruit c. 6 mm in diameter. Rind not woody Glycosmis
10 (9) Style absent, stigma fusiform. Leaves spirally arranged Limonia
+ Style short, stigma capitate or obtuse. Leaves alternate Aegle
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