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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/21/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/21/2013)
Contributor WILL H. BLACKWELL, JR.
Description Herbs, shrubs, trees or lianas, milky latex absent. Leaves opposite, simple, stipulate (stipules sometimes reduced to stipular lines). Inflorescences basically cymose though often much modified (solitary flowers, spiciform inflorescences, thyrses, etc.). Flowers hermaphroditic or less frequently functionally male and female, actinomorphic, 4- or 5-merous (the corolla and stamens rarely pleiomerous); calyx-lobes imbricate; corolla sympetalous, the lobes with valvate, imbricate or contorted aestivation; stamens epipetalous, alternate with the corolla-lobes; nectariferous disc absent or small; ovary superior (rarely I/2 inferior), 2-carpellate and 2-locular (rarely 1-or 4-locular), the ovules several to many per locule, amphitropous or anatropous, the placentation axial (parietal in I-locular ovaries), the style terminal, usually simple, with a capitate or 2-lobed stigma (occasionally the stigmatic region scarcely ap- parent). Fruit a capsule, drupe or berry; seeds usually small, winged or exalate, possessing endosperm, the embryo straight.
Habit Herbs
Distribution A family of 33 genera and about 600 species, mainly tropical; five genera are known to occur in Panama, a sixth is suspected.
Key a. Fruits baccate and indehiscent; leaf-blades 3-5-plinerved or if pinnately nerved then 30 cm or more in length. b. Leaf-blades pinnately nerved, 30 cm or more in length, frequently oblanceo- late or obovate; corolla-lobes and stamens 10; corolla-lobes strongly imbri- cate in the bud; staminal filaments connate by a membranous sheath - 4. Potalia bb. Leaf-blades typically 3-5-plinerved, less than 30 cm in length; corolla-lobes and stamens 4 or 5; corolla-lobes valvate in the bud; staminal filaments absent or not connate - 5. Strychnos aa. Fruits capsular and dehiscent; leaf-blades usually pinnately nerved (rarely with the secondaries obscure) and less than 30 cm long. c. Flowers secund in simple or dichotomous spikes or smaller cincinnous clusters; capsules dehiscing circumscissilly and leaving a cupular base or else deeply 2-lobed apically (frequently for ?2 or more of the capsule length), the lobes often spreading at maturity. d. Leaves often quaternate or pseudo-quaternate at the apical node (sometimes opposite); spikes simple or occasionally irregularly branched; capsules splitting open by 4 valves and then dehiscing circumscissilly to leave a cupular base in the persistent calyx; corolla funnelform or tubular-funnelform, the tube considerably exceeding 2 mm in length .-----------------------------------------1. Spigelia dd. Leaves opposite at all nodes; spikes or cincinnous inflorescences dichotomous; capsules not circumscissilly dehiscent, deeply 2-lobed apically, the lobes deshiscing vertically along their interior margins; corolla urceolate, the tube usually not exceeding 2 mm in length ................................................................ 2. C ynoctonum cc. Flowers not secund in simple or dichotomous spikes; capsules neither dehiscing circumscissilly nor deeply 2-lobed. e. Herbs, prostrate or matted; leaf-blades 3 mm broad or less; flowers solitary in axils of branches and leaves; calyx-tube shorter than the calyx-lobes; calyx and corolla without stellate trichomes ...6. Polypremum ee. Shrubs or trees; leaf-blades more than 3 mm broad; inflorescences several to 00-flowered; calyx-tube equal to or longer than the calyx-lobes; calyx and corolla covered externally with stellate trichomes .-----------------------------------3. Buddleia
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