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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)
Contributor W. G. D'ARCY
Description Herbs, shrubs, trees, lianas or epiphytes, often armed; stems with bicollateral bundles, latex absent, alkaloids often present. Leaves alternate or paired, estipu- late, simple or pinnately compound, entire or variously lobed, glabrous or pubescent with simple, dendritic, stellate, scutellate, and often glandular hairs,4 sometimes armed, degenerate stomata present, sometimes with single guard cells. In- florescence terminal or axillary, often becoming lateral, a panicle, raceme, fascicle or sometimes a solitary flower, bracts or bracteoles sometimes present. Flowers complete, mostly perfect but the first flowers sometimes staminate, rarely dioecious, from small to very large, sometimes fragrant, (4-) 5 ( -9) -merous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; the calyx gamosepalous, prefloration valvate or complete, the apex lobed or truncate, splitting or stretching to permit egress of
Habit Herbs, shrubs, trees, lianas or epiphytes
Description Stellate hairs (stellae) may be sessile or stalked, the stalks being multiseriate and terminated by branches or arms (radii) which come off at one point in one plane (porrect) or at many angles (multangulate). Beyond the point of radii insertion the axis is continued by a midpoint which may bear a terminal gland. The radii may be few (pauciradiate) or very numerous (echinoid). Stellae which develop stout woody stalks are bristles, and the radii are usually visible at the apex at some stage of development. Still stouter stalks are referred to as thorns or spines and may be needle-like (acicular) or hook-like (recurved). Seithe (1962) has elucidated developmental sequences of these trichome types. Stellate pubescence is referred to as sparse, dispersed or dense, dense pubescence being when the radii of neighbor- ing stellae overlap, dispersed when there is a general covering of stellae but the midpoints do not overlap and sparsely pubescent indicates scattered stellae widely separated from one another.  flower or fruit, sometimes circumscissile, sometimes with an epicalyx of a series of secondary teeth or umbos or a basal swelling, often accrescent in fruit; corolla sympetalous, prefloration valvate, induplicate valvate, imbricate or quincuncial, rarely incomplete, tubular, tubiform, campanulate or rotate; the stamens borne on the corolla tube, mostly 5 or reduced to 4, 2, or 1 and staminodes sometimes present, filaments sometimes appendaged, the anthers mostly 2-loculed for part or all of their length, the thecae parallel and connected, the anthers longitudinally dehiscent or opening by terminal pores; the ovary superior (partly inferior in Solandra), of 2 united carpels, and the locule number sometimes increased or reduced by proliferation or reduction of the septum, a hypogenous or rarely perigynous disc sometimes present; ovules mostly many in each locule, tenuinucel- late, anatropous or slightly amphitropous, the placentae elaborated, mostly axile; the style terminal on the ovary, slender, simple, the stigma small or relatively large and elaborated. Fruit mostly a berry or capsule; the seeds often compressed, rarely winged or pubescent, the embryo straight or curved and peripheral, terete or flattened, not plicate; the endosperm fleshy.
Distribution The Solanaceae includes some 80 genera of diverse form. The family is strongly centered in America south of the United States with many species of a few genera in Africa. Species are found in most parts of the world and several isolated genera occur in Australia.
Note Seven of the genera include more than fifty species. Only four genera-Lycium (80-90 species), Physalis (100), Solanum (over 1,400), and Datura (15 )-occur both in America and across the Old World, but several genera are common to America and the Far East, and Schwenkia occurs in both America and Africa. Only about a dozen monotypic genera and only nine genera with two or three species are generally recognized today. Some 14 endemic genera occur in temperate South America. The type is Solanum L. The family includes important food (potato, capsicum, tomato, lulo, pepino, ground cherry), drug (belladonna, atropine, tobacco, vodka, mandrake), and ornamental (petunia, tree potato, galan de noche, browallia, nicotiana, lycium, cestrum, orchid-flower) species as well as a host of noxious weeds (nightshades, bittersweet, arana gato, etc.). Although some species grow to large size, none are known for their wood.
Reference Bentham, G. & J. D. Hooker. Solanaceae. In "Genera Plantarum." 2(1): 882-913. 1873. Danert, S. 1957. Die Verzweigung als infragenerische Gruppenmerkmal in der Gattung Solanum L. Kulturpflanze 15: 275-292. Dunal, M. F. Solanaceae. In A. P. De Candolle, "Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis." 13(1): 1-690. 1852. Seithe, A. Die Haararten der Gattung Solanum L. und ihre taxonomische Verwertung. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 261-336. 1962. Wettstein, R. von. 1895. Solanaceae. In A. Engler & K. Prantl, "Die Natlirlichen Pflanzenfamilien." 4 (3a): 4-38; Nachtrage 292-293.
Key a. Anthers dehiscing by terminal pores (sometimes longitudinally as well). b. Anther connectives strongly thickened and evident the whole length of the anther; inflorescence arising at a dichotomy of the stem; fruit pendant on an elongate axis; calyx lobes present and in flower not splitting at the sutures ...... 6. Cyphomandra bb. Anther connectives not thickened, not evident the whole length of the anther (dorsal surface of anthers may be 'darkened); inflorescence variously situated; fruit erect or pendant; calyx lobes present or absent, often splitting at the sutures, lateral teeth sometimes present. c. Calyx with 10 vascular ribs, the apex truncate, stretching to permit egress of corolla and fruit, up to 10 teeth often arising from the side of the calyx; peduncles mostly wanting; leaves simple, entire ...... 11. Lycianthes cc. Calyx with 5 vascular ribs, mostly splitting at the sutures to permit egress of corolla and fruit; (4- )5( -6) apical teeth mostly present; peduncles mostly present; leaves often compound, lobed or toothed ...... 20. Solanum aa. Anthers dehiscing longitudinally without apical pores. d. Stamens 4 or fewer; flowers mostly narrowly tubular or salverform; plants terrestrial. e. Fruit a dry capsule; seeds less than 0.8 mm across; weak or sprawling herbs mostly less than 50 cm tall. f. Corolla tubular, the lobes minute; calyx less than 3 mm across ...... 18. Schwenckia ff. Corolla salverform, the lobes conspicuous; calyx more than 4 mm across ...... 1. Browallia ee. Fruit a berry, juicy, custardy, fleshy or hard and leathery; seeds more than 1 mm across; tree, shrub or erect herb (sometimes flowering turoin) mostly more than 50 cm tall. g. Fruit custardy and leathery or fleshy, more than 15 mm across; seeds prismatic; flowers more than 20 mm long; anthers rounded or emarginate; tree or shrub ...... 3. Brunfelsia gg. Fruit a juicy, shiny berry, less than 12 mm across; seeds compressed discoid; flowers less than 20 mm long; anthers pointed, often apiculate; herb or subshrub rarely tree ...... 21. Witheringia dd.Stamens 5 or more; flowers of various shapes; plants terrestrial or hemi-epiphitic. h. Flowers more than 8 cm long. i. Terrestrial herbs or shrubs; flowers not yellow; leaves membranaceous; corolla lobes with elongate tips. j. Ovary and fruit elongate, 2-loculed; flowers pendulous; calyx markescent ...... 2. Brugmansia jj. Ovary and fruit rotund, 4-loculed, flowers held erect or at an angle to the ground; calyx circumscissile ...... 7. Datura ii. Vines or epiphytic shrubs; flowers yellow; leaves coriaceous; corolla lobes crenate to fimbriate without elongate tips ...... 19. Solandra hh. Flowers less than 8 cm long. k. Corolla tube less than 9 mm long, corolla mostly rotate or broadly campanulate. 1. Calyx accrescent and enveloping the fruit. m. Corolla rotate, the margin unlobed; fruiting calyx mostly invaginated at the base ...... 16. Physalis mm. Corolla rotate or campanulate with manifest lobes; fruiting calyx not invaginated at the base. n. Fruiting calyx completely enveloping the fruit, the berry not tightly filling the calyx; anthers rounded; herb ...... 8. Deprea nn.Calyx tight against the berry wall, the berry emerging at the apex; anthers pointed; herb or sub-shrub ...... 21. Witheringia 11. Calyx not enveloping the fruit, if accrescent then the lobes flaring wide or recurved. o. Anthers tightly coherent by lateral grooves and ventral pubescence; seeds pubescent; leaves mostly compound ...... 12. Lycopersicon oo. Anthers free (sometimes connivent); seeds glabrous; leaves simple; mostly entire. p. Calyx conspicuously accrescent, in fruit the lobes deltoid, wide- flaring; corolla rotate; berry black ...... 9. Jaltomata pp. Corolla hardly accrescent, in fruit the lobes neither deltoid nor wide-flaring; the berry not black. q. Calyx deeply lobed, fruit not exceeding the calyx lobes; hemi-epiphytic shrubs ...... 13. Markea qq. Calyx not deeply lobed, fruit greatly exceeding the calyx; terrestrial herbs, rarely high climbing. r. Flowers white or nearly so; fruit a dry or fleshy berry; anthers rounded, not apiculate ...... 4. Capsicum rr. Flowers yellowish, brownish, purplish, etc., rarely white; fruit a juicy berry; anthers pointed, often apiculate ...... 21. Witheringia kk. Corolla tube more than 10 mm long, corolla mostly tubular, tubiform, or narrowly campanulate, not rotate or broadly campanulate. s. Viscid pubescent herbs; seeds minute; cultivated plants. t. Plants erect, more than 60 cm tall; flowers arising from a solitary leaf (bract); calyx lobed about halfway down; fruits more than 15 mm long ...... 14. Nicotiana tt. Plants sprawling, less than 60 cm tall; flowers arising from a pair of leaves (bracts); calyx lobed to near the base; fruits less than 12 mm long ...... 15. Petunia ss. Plants not viscid pubescent; herbs, shrubs, trees or vines; seeds 0.5 mm or more across; cultivated or wild plants. u. Fruit not exceeding the calyx lobes; hemi-epiphytes. v. Inflorescence a congested, spherical panicle; apical, ovuliferous portion of ovary contracted into a stylar base; corolla narrowly tubular, only slightly (4-8 mm) exserted from the calyx and pubescent with simple hairs ...... 17. Rahowardiana vv. Inflorescence more or less open, not spherical; ovary not apically contracted into a stylar base; corolla tubular or campanulate, if tubular then long-exserted from the calyx and pubescent with stellate hairs. w. Corolla narrowly tubular, conspicuously stellate pubescent outside, corolla lobes imbricate ...... 10. Juanulloa ww. Corolla campanulate or broadly tubular, puberulent with simple hairs or glabrous outside; corolla lobes valvate ...... 13. Markea uu. Fruit greatly exceeding the calyx (calyx sometimes deciduous); terrestrial shrubs or herbs. x. Calyx deciduous, fruit with spines or tubercules, more than 12 mm across; leaves mostly lobed or sinuate margined; corolla tubiform, flaring at the apex ...... 7. Datura xx. Calyx persistent; fruit smooth, less than 12 mm across; leaves entire; corolla narrowly tubular, sometimes expanded but not flaring at the apex ...... 5. Cestrum
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