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The Republic of Azerbaijan is located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, surrounded by the Greater and Lesser Caucasus in the north and west, the Talysh Mountains in the south and the Caspian Sea in the east. The wide range of soils and climatic conditions, as well as the historical development of ecosystems in Azerbaijan, support high biodiversity and rich genetic resources. Almost all types of ecosystems from glacier-capped high mountains to semi-deserts exist in the country. Plains, steppes, and deserts occupy 31.8% of the territory, and more than half of the country is mountains and highlands. The diverse geographic, biological and climatic conditions in Azerbaijan have provided the higher levels of biological diversity in its flora and fauna over time. More than 4500 vascular plant species, representing around 65% of the Caucasus’ plant diversity, including approximately 200 endemics of Azerbaijan and 950 endemics of Caucasus are recorded in Azerbaijan [Solomon et al. 2013]. Some 1550 species, including endemic and relict species, have been identified as medicinal plants and considered to have an ethnobotanical use in folk and traditional medicine [Mehdiyeva et al. 2017]. Representatives of 125 plant families or 80% of all 156 families grow in Azerbaijan and Caucasus region.
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