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R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone†

First published 13 January 2000. Data will be under continuous revision after this time. This page last revised 8 Oct. 2014.

The Catalogue of New World Grasses (CNWG) is an on-going project led by agrostologists from five institutions to database, using TROPICOS, and link all nomenclature, types, synonymy, current taxonomy, and distribution for grasses occurring from Alaska and Greenland to Tierra del Fuego. This is presented in the context of a new suprageneric classification. The taxonomy accepted by CNWG is derived from contributions by collaborating specialists, or from consultation of literature and specimens by the editors. We gratefully acknowledge numerous individuals who contributed in many other ways. See Notes for details on coverage, format and interpretation of data on the website. A printed version of this Catalogue was published from 2001-2003 in four volumes. Additional useful links. Especially see the Smithsonian Grass Research website for the latest on-line version of the generic classification and much additional useful information for agrostologists.

Names can be selected from one of the following indexes or directly from the search box below. Frequent users of these indexes should delete their cache often as the indexes are being updated regularly.


Robert J. Soreng: Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA. Chief Editor / Group Editor: Pooideae, Oryzoideae. Email: sorengr@si.edu

Gerrit Davidse: Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, USA. Group Editor: Aristideae, Arundineae, Danthonieae, Centotheceae, Thysanolaeneae. Email: gerrit.davidse@mobot.org . See also: Flora Mesoamericana

Paul M. Peterson: Smithsonian Institution, DC, USA. Group Editor. Chloridoideae. Email: peterson@si.edu . See also Grass Research at the Smithsonian

Fernando O. Zuloaga: Instituto de Botánica Darwinión, San Isidro, Argentina. Group Editor: Paniceae and related tribes. Email: fzuloaga@darwin.edu.ar

Emmet J. Judziewicz: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. Group Editor: Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Pharoideae. Email: ejudziew@uwsp.edu

Tarciso S. Filgueiras: Reserva Ecologica do IBGE, Cx. P. 08770, Brasilia-DF 70312-970, Brazil. Group Editor: Andropogoneae and related tribes. Email: : tfilg@uol.com.br

Osvaldo Morrone†: Instituto de Botánica Darwinión. See a short bibliography at the following link:



Aiken, Susan G.: Arctagrostis

Baeza, C. M.: Danthonia, Rytidosperma

Boechat, Sonja de Castro: Sporobolus

Campbell, Julian: Elymus in part

Catalán, Pilar: Brachypodium

Chiapella, Jorge: Deschampsia

Ciadella, Ana María: Piptochaetium

Clark, Lynn: Chusquea, Neurolepis

Connor, Henry: Cortaderia

Darbyshire, Stephan J.: xDupoa, Festuca, Lolium, Vulpia, Meliceae, some Panicum

Davis, J. I.: Puccinellia, Torreyochloa

Doebley, John: Tripsacum, Zea

Duvall, Mel: Leersia, Luziola, Oryza, Rhynchoryza, Zizania, Zizaniopsis

Finot, Victor L.: Graphephorum, Peyritschia, Trisetum

Giussani, Liliana M.: Poa sect. Dioicopa

Greene, Craig W.: Calamagrostis

Herrera-Arrieta, Yolanda: Bouteloua

Hilu, Khidir: Eleusine

Hollowell, Vicki: Eremitis, Pariana

Koch, Stephen D.: Deschampsia, Festuca

Laegaard, Simon: Aciachne, Aristida

Londoño, Ximena: Guadua, Arthrostylidium

Longhi-Wagner, Hilda: Aristida

Negritto, María A.: Poa punapoa group

Oliveira, Reyjane Patricia de: Olyreae

Pavlick, Leon E.: Bromus

Peñalillo, Patricio: Anatherostipa, Jarava

Pensiero, José F.: Setaria

Planchuella, Ana María : Bromus

Rúgolo de Agrasar, Zulma: Digitaria

Saarela, J. M.: Brachyelytrum

Stace, Clive A.: Vulpia

Stančík, Daniel: Festuca

Terrell, Edward E.: Leersia, Luziola, Oryza, Rhynchoryza, Schedonorus, Zizania, Zizaniopsis

Valdés-Reyna, Jesús: Achnatherum, Blepharidachne, Dasyochloa, Erioneuron, Hesperostipa, Munroa, Tridens

Vega, Andrea: Digitaria

Veldkamp, J. F.: Sporobolus

Zizka, Georg: Melinis (Rhynchelytrum)

We thank the following people for additional notes on genera and species:

Aiken, Susan G.: Anthoxanthum, Hierochloe, Phalaris

Catalan, Pilar: Old World Festuca, Lolium, Vulpia

Koch, Stephen D.: Trisetum

Laegaard, Simon: Nassella, Ortachne

Longhi-Wagner, Hilda: Briza, Melica, Piptochaetium

Scholz, Hildemar: Bromus

Stace, Clive A.: Festuca

Terrell, Edward E.: Lolium

Tovar, Óscar: Agrostis, Bromidium, Calamagrostis

Worley, Thomas: Hainardia, Parapholis


Although we consider this Catalogue the most complete ever published for New World grasses, it can never be complete because new discoveries and new taxonomic interpretations are being published on a steady basis. Such new data is added as soon as we become aware of it. Existing entries are also being updated as corrected or more complete information becomes available or as new interpretations and taxonomic decisions are made. Partly for this reason, CNWG is presented as a dynamic website. All web pages are assembled from the TROPICOS database when a request is made, thus assuring that the latest (and hopefully best possible) data is provided for the user. The editors welcome all comments and corrections.


The following four volumes were published from 2000 to 2003 to provide a printed record of the Catalogue. Corrections and additions to the printed volumes have been included in this on-line version of the Catalogue, with comments when necessary. This on-line version of the Catalogue should always be considered the most authoritative and up-to-date version of the Catalogue.

Judziewicz, E. J., R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, T. S. Filgueiras, & F. O. Zuloaga. 2000. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): I. Subfamilies Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pharoideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 39: 1-128.

Peterson, P. M., R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, T. S. Filgueiras, F. O. Zuloaga, & E. J. Judziewicz. 2001. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 41: 1-255.

Zuloaga, F. O. O. Morrone, G. Davidse, T. S. Filgueiras, P. M. Peterson, R. J. Soreng, & E. Judziewicz. 2003. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46: 1-662.

Soreng, R. J., P. M. Peterson, G. Davidse, E. J. Judziewicz, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 1-730.


Geographical distribution is currently presented in three formats:

1. As recorded by CNWG contributors (to country level).

2. Voucher specimen data (incomplete). At the moment we make available all specimen citations that have been recorded in TROPICOS, whether these have been verified by a CNWG contributor or not; therefore be cautious when using this data. To check whether individual collections have been verified by a CNWG contributor, click on a specimen record and check the Det. by field.

3. Maps (limited at this point to specimens with recorded geographical coordinates).


Ranks treated: suprageneric, generic, infrageneric, specific, and infraspecific.

Taxonomy: Accepted Names are bold-faced. Accepted Synonyms are italicized.

Levels of Acceptance: Accepted; Tentatively Accepted; Names of Uncertain Application (when fully treated by CNWG contributor); Provisionally Accepted (when still under study by CNWG contributor).

Authorship, Literature, and Herbaria Standardized to: Brummitt & Powell, 1992; TL-2; BPH/S; BPH; Index Herbariorum.

Distribution is indicated by Country or Caribbean Region in alphabetical order as given in the following list. For many taxa, more detailed distributional information can be obtained from lists of specimen records and maps derived from these. This data can be accessed by clicking on the button labeled: specimen lists and maps. Please note that for most species this more detailed information is still very incomplete, but it is augmented on a regular basis.

Argentina (including Falkland Islands); Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Canada; Caribbean (including all island nations); Chile (including Juan Fernndez Islands); Costa Rica (including Cocos Island); Greenland; Guyana; Ecuador (including Galpagos Islands); El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela;

Definitions of common terms and abbreviations used in headings and especially in NOTES:

as syn. = invalid name originally published as a synonym of another, earlier validly published name

Basionym: A name on which combinations, if any, are based.

Blocking Name: A name preventing the adoption of another name (most often an earlier homonym, sometimes a name that would result in a tautonym if transferred, or a name that would result in a homonym if transferred).

Correct Name: A nomenclaturally valid and legitimate name that should have been adopted under the rules of the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature for an illegitimate name.

Cultivated = Cultivated and of extra New World origin

DH = Donna Herendeen

Excluded = Excluded from CNWG, previously said to occur in the region, but its occurrence in the New World is now known to be in error.

Earlier Name: The homonym with priority.

GD = Gerrit Davidse

hom. illeg. = illegitimate name, a later homonym

Introduced = Introduced into the New World

isonym. = a later publication of a combination already validly published, sometimes indicating emendation of usage

Next Higher Taxon: The genus or species under which an infrageneric taxon or infraspecific taxon was placed by the original author (important in the case of homonyms, and to establish hierarchical links in the database).

nom. nud. = naked name, name without description

nom. inval. = invalid name

nom. illeg. = illegitimate name

nom. illeg. superfl. = superfluous illegitimate name

nom. nov. = nomen novum or new name, an avowed substitute name for a later homonym

Kinds of Types: CT = conserved type, ET = epitype, IET=isoepitype, HT = holotype, ILT = isolectotype, INT = isoneotype, IST = isosyntype, IT = isotype, LT = lectotype, NT = neotype, PT = paratype, ST = syntype, T = any type material whose exact status is unknown; OM = original material; fragm. = fragment of another type (mainly used for incomplete specimens or fragments taken from complete specimens at other herbaria; under current rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature automatically considered to be an isotype if a holotype was designated in the protologue); V = voucher specimen(s) associated with invalidly published names at the first time an invalid name appeared in print

Other Uses: Combinations and New Names derived from a basionym.

PMP = Paul Peterson

Replaced Name: A name (later homonym) for which a nomen novum is required.

RJS = Rob Soreng

Type Protologue. = data from the type protologue

Type Specimen = data from the type specimen or other published source

TRIN = C. B. Trinius herbarium LE, numbers corresponding to IDC microfiche specimen numbers. Some LE specimens may be marked as "GST" which indicates LE general section types.

Unknown = Invalid names for which no synonymy has been designated.


All used with thanks at various times by the GNWC project:

d=descriptions, g=genetics, h=herbarium, l=literature, m=mapping tools, r=references, t=taxonomy 6 January 2009

d THE GRASS GENERA OF THE WORLD (Delta database) http://delta-intkey.com/grass/

d WORLD GRASS SPECIES (Kew, Delta database) http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/data/grasses-db.html

g GenBank (searches) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/GenbankSearch.html

g USDA GRIN taxonomy http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl

g SwissProt-EMBL http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/access.html

h Fairchild Tropical Garden (FTG) VIRTUAL HERBARIUM http://www.virtualherbarium.org/

h US SMITHSONIAN TYPE SPECIMEN REGISTER http://botany.si.edu/types/

l BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NEO-LATIN TEXTS ON THE WEB http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/bibliography/index.htm

l Biblioteca Digital del Real Jardín Bot&aacytenico http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/spa/index.php

l Library Catalogue at the Natural History Museum (BM) http://library.nhm.ac.uk/uhtbin/cgisirsi/ottnfnRNvz/GENERAL/232970011/60/502/X

l CATALPA (NYBG Library catalogue) http://librisc.nybg.org/screens/opacmenu.html

l KEW RECORD OF TAXONOMIC LITERATURE http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/bibliographies/KR//KRHomeExt.html

m Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer Server http://webclient.alexandria.ucsb.edu/client/gaz/adl/index.jsp

m BioGeoManser (batch or single searches for geo. coordinates) http://www.biogeomancer.org/

m DISCOVER LIFE (Global Mapper) http://www.discoverlife.org/

m USGS GAZETEERS http://geonames.usgs.gov/otherlinks.html

m GEOnet NAMES SERVER (non US or US territories)

m GETTY THESAURUS OF GEOGRAPHIC PLACE NAMES http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/tgn/index.html

m LIFEMAPPER (Global Mapper) http://www.lifemapper.org/

m USGS GNIS (US and territories) http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=154:1:4232794396787983

r Conserved Plant Names Proposals and Disposals US http://botany.si.edu/references/codes/props/index.cfm

r Havard University Index of Botanists http: /asaweb.huh.harvard.edu:8080 /databases /botanist_index.html

r INDEX HERBARIORUM (NY) http://www.nybg.org/bsci/ih/ih.html

r INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luistitle.htm

t AusGRASS (Grasses of Australia CD) http://www.publish.csiro.au/books/bookpage.cfm?PID=3296

t AUSTRALIAN PLANT NAME INDEX (APNI) (also maps specimens) http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni

t BIOTA OF NORTH AMERICA http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

t CATALOGUE OF NEW WORLD GRASSES http://www.tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=10

t CLASSIFICATION OF NEW WORLD GRASSES http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?pagename=ClassificationNWG&projectid=10

t CONABIO (name and specimen searches) http://www.conabio.gob.mx/remib/doctos/remibnodosdb.html?

t FLORA EUROPAEA (accepted taxa, syns. and distribution)

t FLORA MESOAMERICANA (keys, desciptions, syn. & dist., etc.) http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

t The Euro + Med Plant Base http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp

t FLORA OF CHINA (search, map) http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/mss/search.htm

t ILDIS - International Legume Database & Information Service http://www.ildis.org/

t Index Nominum Genericorum (ING) http://botany.si.edu/ing/

t INDEX SYNONYMIQUE DE LA FLORE DE FRANCE (syn.& dist., chromosomes) http://www.dijon.inra.fr/flore-france/consult.htm

t Indices Nominum Supergenericorum http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/WWW/supragen.html

t ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) http://www.itis.gov/

t The Linnaean Herbarium On-Line, Linnaean Society of London http://www.linnean-online.org/

t The Linnaean Herbarium (S-LINN) http://linnaeus.nrm.se/botany/fbo/welcome.html.en

t Manual of Grasses for North America http://herbarium.usu.edu/grassmanual/

t NORTH AMERICAN GRASS MANUAL ON THE WEB http://www.herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

t SPECIES2000 http://www.sp2000.org/

t THE INTERNATIONAL PLANT NAMES INDEX (names, authors, publication titles) http://www.ipni.org/index.html

t PLANTS (lots of information) http://plants.usda.gov/

t W3TROPICOS (names, taxonomy, bibliographic searches, literature, chromosomes, specimens, maps, types, images) http://www.tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx

t WORLD GRASS SPECIES SYNONYMS (Kew, Delta database) http://www.kew.org.uk/data/grasses-syn.html

w GOOGLE – IMAGES (search ) http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi&ie=UTF-8


Contributing authors; US-type Register, http://botany.si.edu/types/Botany Department Smithsonian Institution for US National Herbarium grass type records; Smithsonian Office of Fellowships and Grants, provided funding via grants from Seidell, Scholarly Studies, and James Smithson Society; Robert M. Magill, Director of Research Missouri Botanical Garden, for TROPICOS support, programming, and web site development and production, other Missouri Botanical Garden Staff, especially James L. Zarucchi and W. D. Stevens for database support; Peter Jørgensen for database support and the creation of macros used in CNWG; Jeany Davidse, Teri D. Bilsborrow, Cirri Rohrbach, Anne Schlipp, and volunteers John S. Skinner, Virginia G. Laschober, Shirley Anton, and Bruce E. Phillips for data entry. Victoria Batista and Donna Herendeen from the Smithsonian Institution have contributed extensively with data entry and library research.

Gerrit Davidse - gerrit.davidse@mobot.org

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