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Published In: The Gardeners Dictionary...Abridged...fourth edition [23]. 1754. (28 Jan 1754) (Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4)) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus with about 150 species distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both the hemispheres. It is represented by 18 specific and intraspecific taxa in Pakistan.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Doubtful species

Abutilon persicum (Burm. f.) Merr. has been recorded from N.W. Province (Masters 1874) and from Sind (Blatter et al 1929). Presently no specimen of this species is traceable and its occurrence seems to be doubtful.


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Perennial herbs to shrubs, rarely small trees (not in Pakistan) covered with stellate hairs, sometimes mixed with simple hairs. Leaves petiolate, stipulate, ovate or cordate, toothed, angled or lobed. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or in terminal racemes or panicles by the reduction of leaves. Expicalyx absent. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla yellow to orange-yellow. Staminal column divided at the apex into many filaments, included. Carpels 5-many loculed, each locule 2-9 ovuled; stigmas capitellate-capitate; style branches as many as carpels, filiform-clavate. Fruit subglobose, truncate or cylindric, dehiscent schizocarp; mericarps acute to acuminate or obtuse, 2-9 seeded Seeds ± reniform glabrous or hairy.

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1 Carpels 8-12 (2)
+ Carpels more than 12 (5)
2 (1) Fruit cylindric, less than 1 cm long (3)
+ Fruit ovoid, more than 1 cm long (4)
3 (2) Carpels hardly beaked, truncate; leaves hoary Abutilon fruticosum
+ Carpels beaked; leaves glabrescent Abutilon ramosum
4 (2) Plant with long spreading hairs on branches, petioles and pedicels. Sepals 1.5-2 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad, larger than fruit Abutilon grandifolium
+ Plant with appressed hairs. Sepals c. 1 cm long, 4-6 mm broad, smaller than fruit Abutilon pakistanicum
5 (1) Carpels truncate or/and with a distinct mucro (6)
+ Carpels obtuse (13)
6 (5) Sepals not leathery, not exceeding the fruit. Fruit differentiated into ridges and furrows (7)
+ Sepals leathery, exceeding the fruit. Fruit not differentiated into ridges and furrows (finely truncate) Abutilon sepalum
7 (6) Mericarps with 1 mm long awns. Leaf margins prominently toothed. Staminal tube stellate hairy (8)
+ Mericarps with 2 long ultimately horizontally spreading 3-5 mm long awns. Leaf margins minutely toothed. Staminal tube glabrous Abutilon theophrasti
8 (7) Flowers yellow to orange-yellow, 2.5 cm or more across. Mericarps acute or with a small mucro (9)
+ Flowers pale yellow, 1-1.5 cm across. Mericarps gradually acuminate Abutilon bidentatum
9 (8) Stipules lanceolate. Branches, petioles and pedicels with dense, spreading and clammy hairs (10)
+ Stipules linear. Hairs mostly appressed, not clammy (11)
10 (9) Branches and leaves yellowish tomentose and scabrulous (at least on the older parts) Mericarps 20-30, with a small mucro. Fruit truncate, with 10-13 mm long calyx. (Entire plant hispidulous, and with long, spreading hairs) Abutilon hirtum
+ Branches and leaves white tomentose and velutinous. Mericarps 15-20, somewhat obtuse. Fruit usually subglobose, with c. 10 mm long calyx. (Entire plant velvety and with short spreading hairs) Abutilon figarianum
11 (9) Fruit with deep ridges and furrows all over; mericarps 15-20, acute or somewhat acuminate, 10-18 mm long, 7-8 mm broad (dehiscent before breaking away from the central axis) (12)
+ Fruit with ridges and furrows towards the apex only, mericarps more than 20, with a small mucro, 7-10 mm long, 5-6 mm broad Abutilon karachianum
12 (11) Mericarps remain erect at maturity, dehiscent after breaking away from the central axis. Short spreading hairs present at least on young parts Abutilon indicum
+ Mericarps, spreading stellately at maturity, dehiscent before breaking away from the central axis. Spreading hairs lacking, only present at the top of the petiole Abutilon ghafoorianum
13 (5) Mericarps 23-31, each 3-seeded. Leaf almost velvety above, stipules lanceolate. Flowers in pseudoraceme or panicle. Petals 2.5-3 times the length of calyx. Fruiting calyx 10-17 mm long (14)
+ Mericarps 28-39, each 2-seeded (or 1 by abortion). Leaf scabrous above, stipules linear. Flowers axillary, solitary or in fascicles of 2-4, Petals ± twice the length of calyx. Fruiting calyx 7-10 mm long Abutilon muticum
14 (13) Fruit stalk 1-3.5 cm long, articulate, uniformly hairy and thick all over except the joint, lower part shorter-4 times longer than the upper. Fruiting calyx 10-12 mm long, smaller than the mature fruit, inner surface with hairs of uniform length. Fruit with hairs of uniform length, ridges and furrows conspicuous Abutilon pannosum
+ Fruit stalk 1-8 cm long, articulate lower part (of the stalk below the articulation) somewhat thinner, less hairy and 4-25 times longer than the upper. Fruiting calyx 12-17 mm long, usually larger than fruit, inner surface with short and long hairs. Fruit densely covered with short and long hairs, ridges and furrows less conspicuous Abutilon alii

Lower Taxa
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