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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/9/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/9/2013)
Genus Utricularia L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 18. 1753
Note TYPE: U. vulgaris L.
Description Herbs, annual or perennial, aquatic, terrestrial or epiphytic, always of damp places, without true roots or leaves but with stems modified in various ways to function as tubers, rhizoids, stolons, and + leaflike photosynthetic organs, all species bearing small complex bladderlike traps for the capture and digestion of small organisms. Inflorescences pedunculate, racemose, usually simple, brac- teate, sterile bracts (scales) often present on the peduncle and sometimes also on the inflorescence axis; bracts varied, basifixed, medifixed or variously produced below the point of insertion; bracteoles 2 or absent, rarely connate with the bract. Flowers with the calyx 2-lobed, usually accrescent; corolla usually spurred, yel- low or various shades of violet or purple, or white, rarely red, the upper lip en- tire or + 2-lobed, the lower lip entire or 2-5-lobed; stamens usually short, the filaments often winged, the anthers globose or ovoid; ovary ? globose, the ovules 2-many. Capsules globose to ovoid, dehiscing variously by longitudinal slits, dorsiventral or lateral valves or pores, circumscissile or indehiscent; seeds 1-many, variously shaped.
Habit Herbs
Note This is a widespread but mainly tropical genus of ca. 180 species, most diverse and abundant in seasonally wet savanna type vegetation. A few species are epiphytic. This group is most highly developed in the mountains of South and Central America and accounts for 5 of the 12 species recorded in Panama. The remaining 7 Panamanian species are all more or less widespread in the New World and 3 of these occur also in tropical Africa. A further, unascertained Pana- manian species, not included in the key, is represented by incomplete, indetermin- able material. It is included at the end of this generic treatment as U. sp. The morphology of the vegetative parts of Utricularia is peculiar and has been the subject of numerous detailed studies. An admirable summary and bibliogra- phy is published by Lloyd (1942). The true nature of the leaflike organs is dis- cussed by McIntyre & Chrysler ( 1943). The stolons usually radiate from the base of the inflorescence and are usually relatively robust in the aquatic species but delicate and hidden in the substrate in the terrestrial and epiphytic species. They are often branched and from them arise the photosynthetic organs and traps. The rhizoids are specialized, rootlike organs which are present in some species, both aquatic and terrestrial, and they always arise from the base of the inflorescence. The photosynthetic organs are numerous and obvious in most aquatic species and divided in capillary segments, while those of the terrestrials and epiphytes are mostly entire, sometimes very small or completely absent or sometimes well developed and leaflike. The traps are extremely complex and their morphology provides useful taxonomic charac- ters. They range in size from 0.2-6 mm, are mostly globose or ovoid, and are more or less stalked with the mouth adjacent to the stalk (basal), opposite the stalk (apical), or at some intermediate position (lateral). The mouth is often provided with processes on the upper and/or lower lips. The two calyx lobes are sometimes similar or often markedly dissimilar. The corolla is bilabiate with a usually closed throat and no tube. The upper lip is mostly ovate, entire or 2-lobed, and the lower lip is usually larger, often with a prominent gibbous palate and an entire or more usually 2-5-lobed limb. A spur is usually well developed but sometimes short and saccate. The two stamens are inserted at the base of the upper lip, and the anther thecae are distinct or confluent. The stigma is 2-lobed with the lower lobe usually much larger.
Reference Casper, S. J. 1966. Monographie der Gattung Pinguicula L. Biblioth. Bot. 127/128: 1-209, Tafn. 1-16. Fernandez-P~erez, A. 1964. Lentibulariaceae de Colombia y Peru'. Caldasia 9: 5-79. Gibson, D. Nash. 1974. Lentibulariaceae. In Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24 (3-4): 315-328. Lloyd, F. E. 1942. The Carnivorous Plants. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Massachusetts. McIntyre, W. G. & M. A. Chrysler. 1943. The morphological nature of the photosynthetic organs of Orchyllium endresii (Utricularia endresii) as indi- cated by their vascular structure. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 252-260. Taylor, P. 1964. The genus Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae) in Africa (south of the Sahara) and Madagascar. Kew Bull. 18: 1-245. 1967. Lentibulariaceae. In Botany of the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17: 201-228. 1975. Lentibulariaceae. In G. Harling & N. B. Sparre (editors), Flora of Ecuador. Opera Bot., Ser. B, 4: 9-21.
Key a. Terrestrial or epiphytic herbs; photosynthetic organs entire, sometimes well developed and leaflike, but often evanescent and decayed or inconspicuous at anthesis; bracteoles present (but sometimes connate with bract) or if absent then bracts medifixed. b. Bracteoles prepsent, bract basifixed; corolla white, mauve or yellow. c. Epiphytic herbs, usually with well-developed leaflike photosynthetic organs present at anthesis; ovoid or fusiform tubers usually present at the base of the inflorescence; corolla shades of violet or white. d. Corolla 10-20 mm long, the lower lip deeply 3-lobed ...... 6. U. jamesoniana dd. Corolla 30-50 mm long, the lower lip entire, emarginate or shallowly 3-crenate. e. Margins of corolla densely stipitate-glandular, the lower lip 3-crenate; lamina of photosynthetic organs membranous, longer than the pseudo- petiole ...... 3. U. endresii ee. Margins of corolla not or only sparsely stipitate-glandular, the lower lip entire or emarginate; lamina of photosynthetic organs coriaceous, shorter or longer than the pseudopetiole. f. Bracts 10-30 mm long, usually falcate; upper lip of corolla not or scarcely wider than the upper calyx lobe, apex of the spur not de- flexed; lamina of photosynthetic organs with conspicuous nerves, usually shorter than the pseudopetiole ...... 12. U. unifolia ff. Bracts usually less than 6 mm long, straight; upper lip of corolla as wide as or wider than the upper calyx lobe, apex of the spur de- flexed or not; lamina of photosynthetic organs with or without conspicuous nerves, often longer than the pseudopetiole. g. Apex of corolla spur deflexed, the upper lip about as wide as the upper calyx lobe, apex of the lower lip emarginate; lamina of photosynthetic organs with conspicuous nerves and an acute or acuminate apex ...... 9. U. praetermissa gg. Apex of corolla spur not deflexed, the upper lip about twice as wide as the upper calyx lobe, apex of the lower lip entire; lamina of photosynthetic organs with inconspicuous nerves and an obtuse or subacute apex ...... 1. U. alpina cc. Terrestrial herbs, with photosynthetic organs usually inconspicuous or absent at anthesis; tubers never present at the base of the inflorescence; corolla mauve or yellow. h. Corolla violet or white, the lower lip distinctly 3-lobed; photosynthetic organs small, spatulate, rosulate at the base of the inflorescence ...... 2. U. amethystina hh. Corolla yellow, the lower lip entire; photosynthetic organs linear, thalloid, often absent at anthesis ...... 7. U. lloydii bb. Bracteoles absent, bract medifixed; corolla yellow. i. All bracts on the inflorescence axis subtending flowers; corolla spur about as long as the lower lip; lower calyx lobe shorter than the capsule ...... 11. U. subulata ii. Only the alternate bracts on the inflorescence axis subtending flowers; corolla spur about twice as long as the lower lip; lower calyx lobe exceeding the capsule ...... 10. U. pusilla aa. Aquatic herbs; photosynthetic organs dissected into capillary segments, always present and conspicuous at anthesis; bracteoles absent, bracts always basifixed. j. Corolla red; lowermost flower at or near the base of the peduncle; fruiting pedicels sharply reflexed; capsule circumscissile; seeds not winged ...... 5. U. hydrocarpa jj. Corolla yellow; lowermost flower above the middle of the peduncle; fruiting pedicels erect or recurved; capsule valvate or indehiscent; seeds winged. k. Flowers numerous (10-20); fruiting pedicels strongly recurved; capsules in- dehiscent; seeds circular with an inconspicuous hilum and a narrow mem- branous wing ...... 4. U. foliosa kk. Flowers few (1-4); fruiting pedicels spreading; capsules laterally bivalvate; seeds with a conspicuous hilum and an irregular corky wing ...... 8. U. obtusa
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