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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/5/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/5/2013)
Genus Hoffmannia Swartz
PlaceOfPublication Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 30. 1788.
Note TYPE: H. pedunculata Swartz.
Synonym O'Higginsia Ruiz & Pav6n, Fl. Peru 1: 55. 1798. TYPE: 0. obovata R. & P. Higginsia Pers., Syn. P1. 1: 133. 1805. LECTOTYPE: H. obovata Pers., "Higginsia" orth. mut. Steudel Nom. ed. 2, 1: 767. 1840. Evosmia caripensis H. & B., P1. Aeq. 2: 165. 1817. TYPE: E. caripensis H. & B. Campylobotrys Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 3: 269. 1847. TYPE: C. discolor Lem.
Description Shrubs, subshrubs or small trees, rarely herbs. Leaves membranous to thickly chartaceous, usually replete with cystoliths, petiolate or sessile, the stipules de- ciduous. Inflorescences axillary, occasionally subtended by roots (rhizomatous), cymose, usually pedunculate, the flowers spreading or conglomerate. Flowers usually pedicellate, the hypanthium with numerous cystoliths, the calycine tube short, the teeth often 4, usually shorter than the hypanthium; corolla tube usually reduced, glabrous within, the lobes imbricate; stamens 3-5, the anther connective occasionally produced apically; style elongate, slender, glabrous, the stigmas  usually 2, if connate then clavate, linear or lanceolate. Fruits baccate, usually 2-celled; seeds numerous, small, foveolate.
Distribution ranges from Mexico to Argentina.
Note There are more than 150 species in the genus, 1/2 of which may be reduced to synonomy when a monograph of the genus is written. This is the most challenging among the larger genera of Rubiaceae in Middle America. The fact that the stipules drop off when the leaf buds emerge contributes to the taxonomic difficulty of the genus. The flowers and fruits exhibit little variability for the size of the genus.
Reference Dwyer, J. D. 1969. The Genus Hoffmannia (Rubiaceae) in Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 56: 269-286. Standley, P. C. 1934a. North American Flora. Rubiales-(Pars) 32: 190-208. Williams, L. 1973. Hoffmannias from Mexico and Central America. Fieldiana (Botany) 36(6): 51-60.
Key 1. Leaves bullate. 2. Leaves with lateral veins 22-25 ...... 22. H. pustulata
2'. Leaves with lateral veins 8-14 ...... 4. H. bullata
1'. Leaves smooth, not bullate. 3. Petioles with conspicuous lateral inflations (vescicles).
4. Inflorescences axillary and occasionally terminal; inflations of petioles, if present, poorly developed; lateral veins of leaves ca. 10 ...... 18. H. morii
4'. Inflorescences strictly axillary; inflations of petioles well defined; lateral veins of leaves 11-25. 5. Leaf blades to 25 cm long; petioles to 4 cm long; fruits red ...... 26. H. vesciculifera
5'. Leaf blades to 40 cm long; petioles to 13 cm long; fruits white ...... 12. H. kirkbridei
3'. Petioles without conspicuous lateral inflations.
6. Leaves petiolate.
7. Hypanthium with hairs to 1.7 mm long; inflorescence usually contracted and peduncle short. 8. Inflorescences densely capitate and fasciculate, the peduncle much reduced or absent, flowers not unilaterally or helicoidally disposed.
9. Small trees; petioles 0.5-0.8 cm long; stigmas clavate ...... 1. H. aeruginosa
9'. Herbs; petioles 1-4 cm long; stigmas linear oblong ...... 3. H. areolata
8'. Inflorescences patulous, the peduncle to 1.5 cm long, flowers unilaterally and helicoidally disposed ...... 10. H. gentryi
7'. Hypanthium with hairs less than 1 mm long or absent; inflorescences usually pedunculate and spreading.
10. Fruits (immature) at least 2 times longer than wide; stigmas linear oblong, spreading, ca. 1/3 the length of the style.
11. Peduncles absent or to 1cm long; plants terrestrial, 1.5-2.5 m tall. 12. Leaves chartaceous, the lateral veins ca. 4; peduncles to 10 mm long ...... 23. H. rexmontis
12'. Leaves membranous; lateral veins 10-11; peduncles padlike and scarcely measurable, occasionally to 8 mm long ...... 21. H. psychotriifolia
11'. Peduncles to 4.5 cm long; plants probably epiphytic, ca. 0.25 m tall ...... 4. H. bullata
10'. Fruits less than 2 times longer than wide; stigmas if linear oblong, very short and spreading.
13. Corolla lobes 2 or more times longer than the tube; leaf blades often with patches of raphides on upper surface forming a thin crust ...... 14. H. lenticellata
13'. Corolla lobes less than 2 times the length of the tube; leaf blades lacking patches of raphides forming a crust.
14. Calycine lobes to 12 mm in fruit; seeds visible through the wall of the fruit ...... 16. H. longicalycina
14'. Calycine lobes 1-3 mm long; seeds not visible through the wall of the fruit.
15. Inflorescences subtended by roots; stamens 3-4. 16. Leaves oblong rotund; flowers yellow to yellow brown or yellow red; corolla lobes ca. 3 times the length of corolla tube; anthers 4; stigmas clavate rotund ...... 7. H . davidsoniae
16'. Leaves oblong or obovate elliptic; flowers red; corolla lobes less than 2 times the length of the corolla tube; anthers usually 3; stigmas narrowly oblong ...... 8. H. eliasii
15'. Inflorescences not subtended by roots; stamens 4(-6), often 3 in H. ostaurea.
17. Leaves in unequal pairs (anisophyllous); flowers 1-2 per axil ...... 27. H. witheringioides
17'. Leaves in pairs similar in size; flowers many per axil.
18. Anther connective not produced apically or basally.
19. Flowers ca. 2 cm long at maturity; calycine lobes 4-5(-6); stamens 3-4; ovaries 3-4 loculate ...... 15. H . lewisiana
19'. Flowers to 1.5 cm long at maturity; calycine lobes regularly 4; stamens (3-)4(-5); stigmas 2-3; ovaries 2-3 loculate.
20. Leaves membranous; stamens 3(-4) ...... 19. H . ostaurea
20'. Leaves thin chartaceous to subcoriaceous; stamens 4(-5).
21. Stigmas lanceolate, sharp tipped ...... 13. H. lancistigma
21'. Stigmas capitate rotund to linear oblong, blunt tipped.
22. Leaf blades rubescent, the pigment extractable on boiling; flowers subsessile ...... 24. H. rubripigmenta
22'. Leaf blades not rubescent, not yielding pigment on boiling; flowers obviously pedicellate.
23. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, not membranous and translucent on drying.
24. Leaves widely oblong to ovate subrotund, to 11 cm long, subcoriaceous, the lateral veins 7-9; inflorescences compressed, the flowers few ...... 6. H. cercidifolia
24'. Leaves elliptic or obovate elliptic, 9-35 cm long, chartaceous, the lateral veins (11-)15-20; inflorescences usually spreading, the flowers numerous ...... 20. H. pittieri
23'. Leaves membranous and translucent on drying.
25. Leaves to 25 cm long; pedicels 0.5 mm wide; calycine lobes to 1.1 mm long; corolla tube pubescent; stamens 3(-4) ...... 19. H. ostaurea
25'. Leaves 10-16 cm long; pedicels ca. 0.25 mm wide; calycine lobes 0.4-0.8 mm long; corolla tube glabrous; stamens 4 ...... 5. H. capillacea
18'. Anther connective produced apically or basally.
26. Leaves to 9.5 cm wide; anther connective produced basally; flowers purple ...... 9. H. fimbrianthera
26'. Leaves usually 3 cm wide; anther connective produced apically; flowers yellow ...... 28. H. woodsonii
6'. Leaves sessile.
27. Inflorescences with peduncles 3-6 cm long.
28. Leaves rounded toward the apex; calycine lobes 3-4 mm long ...... 11. H. haydenii
28'. Leaves acute or acuminate toward the apex; calycine lobes less than 1 mm long.
29. Inflorescences solitary in axils; plants prostrate ...... 25. H. subauriculata
29'. Inflorescences several per axil or cauliflorous; plants upright ...... 2. H . araneopedaria
27'. Inflorescences with peduncles ca. 30 cm long ...... 17. H. manussatani
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