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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 236. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus of about 150 species, found mostly in the temperate regions of Europe and Asia.


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Annual or perennial, erect or procumbent to decumbent. Leaves simple entire, petiolate or sessile; bases usually sheathing, amplexicaul or perfoliate lamina acicular, linear, lanceolate, oval, ovate, obovate or almost round Umbels compound. Rays 1 to numerous. Involucral bracts present or lacking. Involucel of a few to many bractlets or lacking. Flowers yellow, yellowish-whit or greenish, dark purple to almost black. Calyx teeth obsolete. Stylopodium light brown to black, depressed to conical. Fruit elliptic to oblong or ovoid; ridges usually prominent, winged or not winged; furrows I-4-vittate; com- missure 2-6-vittate, Inner seed face plane to slightly concave.

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1 Umbels multiradiate. Leaves linear, lanceolate, ovel, oblong, ovate to almost orbicular (2)
+ Umbels uniradiate. Leaves acicular, occasionally few linear Bupleurum subuniflorum
2 (1) Upper leaves almost orbicular, perfoliate (3)
+ Upper leaves linear to oval or ovate; not perfoliate (4)
3 (2) Leaves glaucous green. Rays 5-10 Bupleurum rotundifolium
+ Leaves yellowish green. Rays 10-20 Bupleurum croceum
4 (2) Leaves broadly oval to ovate or only basal oval to ovate, upper gradually narrower (5)
+ All leaves narrowly linear to oval (6)
5 (4) Basal leaves petioled, oval to ovate; upper gradually narrower. Rays 2-5 Bupleurum gilesii
+ Lower and upper leaves oval to ovate. Rays 5-7 Bupleurum lanceolatum
6 (4) Middle and upper leaves with 13 or more veins (7)
+ Middle and upper leaves with 9 or less veins (13)
7 (6) Plants with yellow or black flowers. Bractlets lanceolate to oval, 3-5 veined, as long or longer or shorter than the flowering umbellet (8)
+ Plants with almost black flowers. Bractlets ovate, 5-7 veined, as long or longer than the flowering umbellet Bupleurum longicaule
8 (7) Bases of upper leaves completely amplexicaul, auriculata (9)
+ Bases of upper leaves not or slightly amplexicaul, not auriculata (11)
9 (8) Apices or upper leaves long acuminate. Flowers yellow (10)
+ Apices of upper leaves not acuminate. Flowers dark purple Bupleurum constancei
10 (9) Lower leaves linear; upper with inflated leaf bases Bupleurum clarkeanum
+ Lower leaves linear to lanceolate; upper without inflated leaf bases Bupleurum thomsonii
11 (8) Bracts present. Rays 5-12. Upper leaves cordate (12)
+ Bracts frequently lacking or 1. Rays 5-8. Upper leaves oblong, not cordate Bupleurum swatianum
12 (11) Bracts 1-3, Rays 8-12. Upper leaves oblong to broadly ovate, cordate. Bractlets shorter than the flowers Bupleurum jucundum
+ Bracts 1-4, unequal. Rays 5-10. Upper leaves oval to ovate, amplexicaul. Bractlets as long or longer than the flowers Bupleurum candollei
13 (6) Plants decumbent. Stems many form the base (14)
+ Plants erect, sometimes decumbent. Stem 1 or more from the base (16)
14 (13) Leaves linear to lanceolate or oval; bases broadly amplexicaul (15)
+ Leaves narrowly linear to linear; bases slightly amplexicaul Bupleurum gracillimum
15 (14) Flowers yellow. Bractlets linear
+ Flowers black. Bractlets oval to ovate Bupleurum atroviolaceum
16 (13) Plants perennial. Leaves linear, lanceolate, falcate or oval. Fruit furrows 1-4-vittate (17)
+ Plants annual. Leaves oval, obtuse, punctate. Fruit furrows 1. vittate Bupleurum tenue
17 (16) Leaves linear to lanceolate. Flowers and fruits subsessile or the pedicels as long as the flowers and the fruits (18)
+ Leaves oval. Pedicels 2-3 times longer than the flowers and the fruits Bupleurum kohistanicum
18 (17) Cauline leaves linear to falcate, more than 2 cm long.Fruit furrows 1-3-vittate (19)
+ Cauline leaves linear, up to 2 cm long. Fruit furrows 1-vittate Bupleurum stewartianum
19 (18) Flowering umbels numerous. Fruit furrows 1- vittate (20)
+ Flowering umbels not numerous. Fruit furrows 2-4-vittate (21)
20 (19) Leaves linear, up to 10 cm long. Stylopodium dark coloured. Bracts shorter than the flowering umbellet Bupleurum nigrescens
+ Leaves linear to lanceolate. Stylopodium light brown. Bractlets as long or longer than the flowering umbellet Bupleurum tenue
21 (19) Leaves linear, 1-4 mm broad (22)
+ Leaves linear to falcate, 3-10 mm broad (24)
22 (21) Lower leaves linear, not involute. Upper part of the plant with leaves (23)
+ Lower leaves narrowly linear, involute, forming a groove. Upper part of the plant almost leafless. Rays 3-7 Bupleurum canaliculatum
23 (22) Leaves stiff, coriaceous, 1-3 mm broad. Rays 3-9. Bractlets linear to lanceolate Bupleurum exaltatum
+ Leaves not stiff or coriaceous, 2-4 mm broad. Rays 2-6. Bractlets oblong to lanceolate Bupleurum linearifolium
24 (21) Leaves amplexicaul; upper part of the leaves long tapering (25)
+ Leaves hardly amplexicaul; upper part of the leaves suddenly acute Bupleurum hoffmeisteri
25 (24) Leaves linear to falcate Bupleurum falcatum
+ Leaves linear; margins cartilaginous; base amplexicaul, narrow Bupleurum marginatum
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