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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/13/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/13/2013)
Genus Clerodendrum L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 637. 1753
Synonym Siphonanthus L., Sp. P1. 109. 1753; Gen. P1., ed. 5. 47. 1754. Ovieda L., Sp. P1. 637. 1753; Gen. P1., ed. 5. 284. 1754. Volkameria L., Sp. P1. 637. 1753; Gen. P1., ed. 5. 284. 1754. Montalbania Neck., Elem. 1: 273. 1790. Volkmannia Jacq., Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 48, pl. 338. 1798. Agricolaea Schrank, Denkschr. Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 98. 1808. Torreya Spreng., Neue Endeck. 2: 221. 1821, non Torreya Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 356. 1818, nec Raf., Jour. Phys. 89: 105. 1819, nec Arn., Ann. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1. 1: 130. 1838, non Croom ex Mesin., Gen. Comm. 34. 1843. Egena Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 85. 1837. Cornacchinia Savi, Mem. Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, Pt. Mem. Fis. 21: 184, pl. 7. 1837. Rotheca Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 69. 1838. Clerodendron R. Br. ex Meisn., Gen. P1. 1: 637. 1838. Cyclonema Hochst., Flora 25: 225. 1842. Spironema Hochst., Flora 25: 226. 1842, nec Spironema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 92. 1836, non Lindl., Bot. Reg. 26: pl. 46. 1840. Cyrtostemma Kunze, Bot. Zeit. 1: 272. 1843.
Description Woody plants, mostly trees or shrubs, sometimes woody vines, usually un- armed or rarely with the petiole-base spinescent, glabrous or variously pubescent. Leaves simple, decussate-opposite or whorled, entire or variously dentate, decidu- ous, exstipulate. Inflorescences cymose, the cymes mostly loose-flowered, pedun- culate in the upper leaf-axils, paniculate at the apex of the branchlets or densely aggregate in terminal corymbs or heads, the flowers rarely solitary. Flowers zygomorphic, often large and showy, mostly white, blue, violet, or red, the calyx the same color as the corolla or contrastingly red, white, or green; callyx cam- panulate or rarely tubular, truncate, 5-toothed, or 5-fid, often accrescent, spreading and subtending the fruit or enclosing it; corolla hypocrateriform, gamopetalous, the tube narrowly cylindric, straight or incurved, sometimes slightly ampliate at the mouth, often elongate, more rarely only slightly exceeding the calyx, the limb spreading or subreflexed, 5-parted, the lobes subequal or the posterior and exterior pairs slightly shorter and the anterior one larger, sometimes concave; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the corolla-tube, long-exserted, involute in bud, perfect, alternate with the corolla-lobes, the anthers ovate or oblong, 2-celled with parallel thecae, opening by longitudinal slits; pistil one, compound, 2-carpellate, the style terminal, elongate, shortly and acutely 2-fid apically, the ovary imperfectly 4- celled, each cell 1-ovulate, the ovules high-lateral, hemianatropous. Fruit dru- paceous, globose or obovoid, often 4-sulcate and sub-4-lobed, the exocarp more or less fleshy, the endocarp bony or crustaceous, smooth or variously rugose, separating on maturity into 4 pyrenes or these sometimes cohering in pairs; seeds oblong, without endosperm.
Habit trees or shrubs
Distribution A complex genus of about 560 species and named varieties (largest genus in the farnily) of tropical and subtropical regions, most abundant in Asia and Africa, poorly represented in America except in cultivation and by naturalization. A few species extend into temperate zones.
Note Six species of fossil forms are known from the Tertiary of Europe and Africa. Cyclonema may be worthy of segregation as a distinct genus.
Key a. Leaves large, coarsely dentate or deeply lobed. b. Leaf-blades deeply lobed, densely squamose beneath; inflorescence widely pyra- midal-paniculate; corolla scarlet or deep-orange ...... 1. C. paniculatum bb.Leaf-blades irregularly coarse-dentate, not squamose beneath; inflorescence a short compact cyme; corolla white or pinkish ...... 2. C. philippinum aa. Leaves smaller, entire. c. Corolla blood-red; calyx white during anthesis, purple or pink after anthesis, split to the base, the lobes ovate, large, foliaceous, to 2 cm long and 1 cm wide; vine; leaf- scars usually not sharply elevated ...... 4. C. thomsonae cc. Corolla white; calyx green, split only 1/2.-% way to the base, the lobes narrowly lanceolate; shrubs; leaf-scars mostly much elevated and elongated, often sharp. d. Leaf-blades acuminate at the apex. e. Leaves ternate, puberulent beneath ...... 5a. C. ligustrinum var. nicaraguense ee. Leaves opposite, glabrous beneath ...... 5. C. ligustrinum dd. Leaf-blades rounded or obtuse at the apex, sometimes acute. f. Leaf-blades tomentose or tomentellous beneath, to 3 cm wide ...... 6. C. molle ff. Leaf-blades glabrous beneath, to 1 cm wide ...... 3. C. pittieri
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