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Published In: Trudy Botanicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk S S S R. Ser. 1, Flora i Sistematika Vysshikh Rastenii. Moscow & Leningrad 9: 33. 1950. (post 14 Dec 1950) (Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/11/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted

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62. Pseudognaphalium Kirp. (cudweed, everlasting)

Plants annual or biennial, unbranched or more commonly few-branched from the base and few-branched to moderately branched toward the tip, with taproots, usually slightly to strongly aromatic with a resinous odor when crushed or bruised. Stems erect or ascending, densely pubescent with woolly hairs, at least toward the tip, sometimes also glandular. Basal leaves occasionally present at flowering, broader but not noticeably longer than the lower stem leaves, oblanceolate to spatulate, rounded to broadly and bluntly pointed at the tip, often with 3 main veins. Stem leaves numerous, sessile, linear to narrowly oblanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, mostly sharply pointed at the tip, truncate or slightly tapered at the base, the margins entire and sometimes finely wavy, the upper surface appearing green, sparsely pubescent with cobwebby to woolly hairs, also with scattered, minute, stalked glands, the undersurface densely white-woolly. Inflorescences relatively broad panicles, the individual heads sessile or more commonly and noticeably short-stalked. Heads with the marginal florets pistillate, the central florets perfect. Involucre 5–8 mm long, narrowly ovoid to cup-shaped, often appearing bell-shaped when pressed, the bracts in 5–7 overlapping series, appressed to loosely appressed, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate or ovate, rounded to bluntly or sharply pointed at the tip, the inner few series sometimes irregularly truncate, with dense, woolly hairs toward the base, usually white to straw-colored, rarely faintly pinkish- or purplish-tinged, shiny. Receptacle flat or somewhat convex, naked. Corollas white to more commonly yellow, sometimes purplish-tinged at the tip. Pappus of numerous capillary bristles, these mostly free at the base and shed individually or in small groups, minutely toothed. Fruits 0.6–0.9 mm long, narrowly oblong-obovoid, slightly flattened, the surface appearing smooth, yellowish brown to greenish brown, sometimes somewhat shiny. About 80 species, nearly worldwide, but most diverse in Central America and South America.

The segregation of Pseudognaphalium from Gnaphalium has been somewhat controversial (Arriagada, 1998). The modern concept of these genera initially was suggested by Hilliard and Burtt (1981) and subsequently was refined by Anderberg (1991, 1994). However, there is no single derived character that separates the two, and it has been argued that the details of involucral bract morphology and other minor features that have been used in combination to separate the genera are insufficient for the purpose. In the belief that further, more detailed study probably will show increased support for Pseudognaphalium and because the genus will be accepted in the forthcoming treatment for the Flora of North America Project, it is accepted here as well.

The basal rosettes of particularly P. obtusifolium may be confused with those of Antennaria parlinii. Although in both species the upper surface may appear glabrous or nearly so at maturity, the leaves of Pseudognaphalium differ in their scattered, minute, stalked glands. Also, a fourth species of Pseudognaphalium eventually may be collected in Missouri, as it has been documented in Illinois (historically) and Tennessee. Pseudognaphalium macounii (Greene) Kartesz differs from the species known thus far from Missouri in having its leaves extending down the stem from the main attachment point as two short, narrow wings of tissue.

Steyermark (1963) noted that plants of this genus provide food for Missouri's turkeys and deer, and that in folk medicine the leaves were boiled in milk as a remedy for flux (the abnormal bodily discharge of fluid; diarrhea).


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1 1. Stems moderately to densely woolly, the pubescence sometimes becoming abraded in small patches with age, not appearing glandular (but sparse glands sometimes present toward the stem base and hidden under the woolly hairs) ... 3. P. OBTUSIFOLIUM

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium
2 1. Stems sometimes somewhat woolly when young, but not appearing woolly below the inflorescence at maturity, instead moderately to densely glandular or glandular-hairy

3 2. Stems with minute to short, stalked glands (appearing glandular-hairy), these variously 0.2–1.0 mm long on the same stem; largest stem leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong-lanceolate ... 1. P. HELLERI

Pseudognaphalium helleri
4 2. Stems with minute, stalked glands, these 0.1–0.2 mm long; largest stem leaves lanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate ... 2. P. MICRADENIUM Pseudognaphalium micradenium
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