Home Flora of Pakistan
Name Search
District Map
Grid Map
Inventory Project
!!Menispermaceae Juss. Search in IPNISearch in NYBG Virtual HerbariumAfrican Plants, Senckenberg Photo GallerySearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: Genera Plantarum 284–285. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: Botany Department, Gordon College, Rawalpindi.
General/Distribution: A family with about 65 genera and nearly 350 species, mostly tropical and subtropical. Represented by 4 genera and 5 species in Pakistan. It is closely related to Lardizabalaceae, but can be easily distinguished by its drupaceous fruit and the often curved horseshoe-shaped embryo.


Export To PDF Export To Word
Climbers or lianas, rarely erect shrubs or small trees, dioecious. Leaves alternate, simple (rarely trifoliolate), exstipulate. Flowers small, unisexual, greenish, actinomorphic, arranged in panicles, cymes or racemes, axillary or borne on the older wood. Both calyx and corolla 2-seriate. Sepals free or united, (4-)6(-8), very rarely 1-3 or none. Male flowers: stamens 6, usually antipetalous, sometimes 3 or 2 or more; filaments free or connate; anthers short, often extrorse, 1-2-locular dehiscing by a longitudinal, transverse or circular slit; rudimentary carpels minute or absent. Female flowers: staminodes 6 or absent, carpels 3 or 6, rarely one or several, free, sessile or stipitate, uniovulate. Fruit drupaceous with a style-scar subterminal or basal due to eccentric growth. Seeds often horseshoe-shaped; albumen copious, ruminate or absent.

Anatomically, the wood is characterized by the presence of broad medullary rays alternating with wedges of wood and by the large vessels.


Export To PDF Export To Word Export To SDD
Switch to indented key format
1 Leaves not peltate. Bracts not enlarged in fruit. Stamens free. Carpels 3 or more (2)
+ Leaves Peltate. Bracts enlarged in fruit. Stamens united in a column or disc. Carpel 1 Cissampelos
2 (1) Leaves 3-5-nerved, not deeply cordate at the base. Carpels 3-30 (3)
+ Leaves 7-nerved, deeply cordate at the base. Carpels 3 Tinospora
3 (2) Leaves palminerved. Carpels 3-6. Drupes circular, laterally compressed, tubercled when dry. Seeds horseshoe-shaped, albumen not ruminate Cocculus
+ Leaves penninerved. Carpels 6-30. Drupes obovoid, not tubercled when dry. Seeds uncinate, albumen ruminate Tiliacora
© 2022 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110