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Published In: Genera Plantarum 141. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: SAOOD OMER
Contributor Institution: Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
General/Distribution: A family of more than 90 genera and ± 1000 species, distributed in both the hemispheres: In Pakistan, the family is represented by 15 genera and c. 77 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowlegements: We are grateful to the Directors/Curators of the following herbaria for herbarium and library facilities: B, BLATT, BM, CAL, E, G, K, LE, LINN, LIV, NA, NY, O, P, PPFI-B, RAW, RNG, PESH, W, and WU. Thanks are also due to Dr. M.I. Hakki, Dr. H.W. Lack, Dr. R.K. Brummitt, Mr. R. Vickory, Mrs. R. Khan, Dr. C.E. Jarvis, Prof. I.C.Hedge, Dr. D. Long, Dr. R.R. Mill, Dr. Y.J. Nasir, Dr. S.L. Jury and Prof. Dr. K.H. Rechinger for discussing various problems from time to time and for their advice and suggestions. The financial assistance provided by the United States Department of Agriculture under PL. 480 with the coordination of Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad is gratefully acknowledged.


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Annual-perennial herbs to shrubs of varying habit, mat forming - erect subshrubs. Leaves simple, basal or cauline or both, basal often forming a rosette, cauline opposite rarely alternate. Inflorescence various: racemes, cymes, verticillate clusters or solitary. Flowers variously coloured: blue, purple, violet, pink, white, yellow, 4-8 (-10) merous, bisexual, regular actino-zygomorphic. Calyx also variable with 4-8 (-10) united, or free or semiunited sepals, or calyx divided from one side. Corolla 4-8 (-10) merous, provided with or without appendages or subsidiary lobes, fimbriate or fimbriae absent, nectaries either epipetalous or at base of ovary or absent. Ovary superior, unilocular, with parietal placentation. Fruit a 2 valved dehiscent capsule. Seeds few to many.

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1 (4) Flowers not spurred (2)
+ Flowers spurred 2 Halenia
2 (1) Flowers regular, all stamens equal and fertile (3)
+ Flowers irregular, i.e. three stamens short and sterile, fourth long and fertile 4 Hoppea
3 (2) Anthers not as above (4)
+ Anthers strongly twisted after anthesis 3 Centaurium
4 (3) Flowers in verticellate cl usters. Filaments with scales at base (1)
+ Flowers arranged otherwise. Filaments without scales at base (except. Jaeschkea) (5)
5 (4) Corolla tube shorter than lobes or tube absent (6)
+ Corolla tube longer than lobes or tube ± equal to lobes (7)
6 (5) Corolla tube with nectaries or nectary l ike depression at the base. Stigma not decurrent 15 Swertia
+ Corolla tube without nectaries or nectary l ike depression at the base. Stigma decurrent 14 Lomatogonium
7 (5) Nectaries present at the base of the corolla tube. Corolla non-plicate (10)
+ Nectaries present at the base of ovary. Corolla plicate (8)
8 (7) Anthers dorsifixed or versatile. Basal leaves usually one nerved. Mostly biennials-perennials, sometimes annuals (9)
+ Anthers basifixed. Basal leaves more than one nerved. Mostly annuals or biennials 5 Ciminalis
9 (8) Corolla fimbriate inside the corolla tube
+ Corolla naked inside the corolla tube 6 Gentianodes
10 (7) Style present. Corolla lobes naked (11)
+ Style absent. Corolla lobes fmbriate, fimbriae linear to filiform 11 Comastoma
11 (10) Calyx lobes distinctly unequal (12)
+ Calyx lobes equal-subequal (13)
12 (11) Calyx lobes distichously unequal 9 Gentianopsis
+ Calyx lobes unequal, but never distichous 10 Aloitis
13 (11) Calyx always longer than corolla (13)
+ Calyx not as above (14)
14 (13) Stamens basifixed 12 Jaeschkea
+ Stamens versatile 8 Aliopsis
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