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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 159. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: DANIEL F. AUSTIN
Contributor Institution: Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA
General/Distribution: This is the largest genus-complex in the family with about 500 species distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of both the hemispheres. Since the group is complex, numerous interpretations of the taxa have been presented, see for example: Hallier f., in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16:583.1893, van Ooststroom, in Blumea 3:482.1940, Verde. l.c., Austin, Taxon 24:107.1975 & Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62:189.1975. About 20 species have been reported from Pakistan.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Species Dubia

Ipomoea sagittata sensu Rechinger, Fl. Iran. 2:23.1963, non Poir. 1789, R.R. Stewart, l.c. 577.

This record is based on a collection by Blatter et al. 393 from Baluchistan. I have not been able to f ind this collection and thus cannot be certain of the identity of the plant. The habitat is entirely wrong for Ipomoea sagittata and I suspect the plants were actually Ipomoea sepiaria Roxb. 1824.

Ipomoea rumicifolia Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6:446.1834, Choisy DC., l.c. 351, Clarke in Hook. f., l.c. 207, R.R. Stewart, l.c. 577.

Choisy based this in part on Wallich 2254(G-DC) from India. Stewart included it in Pakistan’s flora on the basis of Jafri 2552 (K) which I have not found. The species is reported from tropical E. Africa (Stewart, l.c. 577, Clarke, l.c. 207, but I did not f ind it in Verdcourt, Fl. Trop. E. Africa 1963).

Species To Be Expected

Ipomoea obscura (Linn.) Ker-Gawl., Bot. Reg. 3. t. 239.1817. Convolvulus obscures Linn., Sp. Pl. ed. 2.2.1762.

This species with ovate-cordate leaves and white to yellow flowers with dark purple centre is found from E. Africa to India and Malaysia and is to be expected in the Central and Southern regions of Pakistan.


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Climbers, shrubs or trees, usually twining but sometimes prostrate or floating. Leaves variable in shape and size, entire, lobed or divided or rarely compound. Flowers mostly in axillary, 1-to many-flowered dichasia, rarely paniculate. Sepals herbaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous or pubescent. Corolla regular or slightly zygomorphic, mostly funnel-shaped or campanulate,less often tubular or salverform. Fruit globose or ovoid, capsules mostly 4-valved. Seeds glabrous to pubescent.

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1 Corolla salverform, the long narrow tube only slightly wider near or above the middle, abruptly flaring near the summit. Anthers exserted. Flowers opening during night and closing in early morning (white or lavender scarlet flowers) or open most of the day (red or scarlet flowers) (2)
+ Corolla funnel-shaped to campanulate, the short to long tube expanding from below the middle, gradually or abruptly flaring near the summit. Anthers mostly included. Open during morning, closing near noon (6)
2 (1) Corolla 2-5 cm long, red to orange or yellowish (rarely white). Flowers open during most of day (3)
+ Corolla 6-16 cm long, the limb or tube white or lavender. Flowers opening during night and closing in early morning (5)
3 (2) Leaf blades divided less than halfway to the mid-rib, appearing pinnately or palmately lobed, the segments mostly lanceolate (4)
+ Leaf blades divided more than halfway to the midrib and appearing pinnately compound, the segments linear 15 Ipomoea quamoclit
4 (3) Sepals 5-8 mm long
+ Sepals 1.5-3 mm long 8 Ipomoea hederifolia
5 (2) Flower tube 9-15 mm long. Fruit 2-3 cm long 1 Ipomoea alba
+ Flower tube 3-6 mm long. Fruit 1.8-2 cm long 18 Ipomoea turbinata
6 (1) Glabrous perennials with procumbent stems, not normally twining. Leaves fleshy or leathery. Se-pals elliptic-oblong to orbicular. Habitat of coastal dunes and beaches or inland waterway margins or cultivated wetlands (7)
+ Glabrous or pubescent annuals or perennials with twining or erect stems, not usually rooting at the nodes (except in I. batatas). Leaves chartaceous to fleshy. Sepals acuminate to suborbicular. Habitat various (8)
7 (6) Flowers pink, lavender or purple. Leaves sub-orbicular to suborbicular-oblong, apically emarginate 12 Ipomoea pes-caprae
+ Flowers white, with light or dark throat inside tube. Leaves sagittate 2 Ipomoea aquatica
8 (6) Sepals herbaceous. Sepals, peduncles and pedi-cels with reflexed or erect trichomes (except I. indica). Stigmas with 3 lobes (rarely 2), ovary 3-4-locular (rarely 2-locular). Corolla blue, red or white or inflorescence sub-capitate or bracteate (9)
+ Sepals coriaceous or membranaceous, rarely herbaceous. Sepals, peduncles and pedicels glabrous or at least without reflexed trichomes. Stigmas with 2 lobes, ovary 2-locular. Corolla mostly lavender, sometimes blue or white, the inflorescences rarely bracteate (14)
9 (8) Corolla mostly less than 5 cm long. Sepals hispid pilose outside with long spreading trichomes (10)
+ Corolla 5-7 cm long. Sepals soft-pubescent out side with slender trichomes or rarely glabrous 10 Ipomoea indica
10 (9) Leaves entire, toothed or shallowly 3-lobed, the lobes cut less than halfway to the blade base (11)
+ Leaves deeply palmately 7-9-lobed, the lobes cut almost to the blade base 13 Ipomoea pes-tigridis
11 (10) Flowers solitary or in open cymose inflorescences. Corolla 4-8 cm long (12)
+ Flowers in sub-capitate to capitate inflorescences, occasionally involucrate or bracteate. Corolla 0.7-3 cm long 7 Ipomoea eriocarpa
12 (11) Sepals with very narrow elongate green tips, much longer than the body (13)
+ Sepals with slightly narrowed green tips, shorter to slightly longer than the body 14 Ipomoea purpurea
13 (12) Sepal tips erect or slightly curved 11 Ipomoea nil
+ Sepal tips curved to one side, at least when plants are in fruit 9 Ipomoea hederacea
14 (8) Shrubs, woody. Seeds comose, atleast on margins
+ Climbers, herbaceous. Seeds glabrous or densely shortly pubescent (15)
15 (14) Leaves glabrous to very sparsely pubescent below. Corolla mostly over 3 cm long (16)
+ Leaves densely white-cottony pubescent below. Corolla 1.2-1.7(-2) cm long 3 Ipomoea arachnosperma
16 (15) Leaves entire or lobed but not palmately divided to the base. Pseudo-stipules absent (17)
+ Leaves palmately divided to the base. Pseudo-stipules present 5 Ipomoea cairica
17 (16) Margins of sepals scarious. Flowers blue 17 Ipomoea tricolor
+ Margins of sepals not obviously scarious. Flowers lavender 4 Ipomoea batatas

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