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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 693. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus with about 250 species. distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of both the hemispheres. It is represented in Pakistan by 18 taxa of which 9 are wild including endemic species.


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Annual to perennial herbs or undershrubs to trees, usually with stellate pubescence. Leaves various, with or without lobes. Flowers axillary, usually solitary, occasionally fasciculate or in racemes or panicles by reduction of leaves; pedicel with or without joint. Epicalyx segments 3-many, rarely absent, free or connate, rarely adnate to calyx, persistent or sometimes caducous. Calyx 5-lobed to partite, campanulate, persistent. Corolla of various colours; petals 3. Staminal column inserted or exserted or equal, almost antheriferous throughout or only in the upper half. Carpels 5, syncarpous; ovary usually 5-loculed, each locule 3-many ovuled; style 5-branched above, connate below. Fruit loculicidally dehiscent capsule, usually 5-celled. Seeds 3-many in each cell, glabrous or variously pubescent, angular, globose or reniform.

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1 Herbs or shurbs. Stipules filiform, linear or linear-lanceolate. Ovary 5-celled (2)
+ Trees. Stipules usually large, foliaceous. Ovary 10-celled due to false septa Hibiscus tiliaceus
2 (1) Calyx with 10 strongly prominent nerves and glandular outside. Epicalyx segments prickly or if smooth then adnate to the calyx base3
+ Calyx not prominently nerved, eglandular. Epicalyx segments smooth not adnate to the calyx (4)
3 Plant usually unarmed. Epcialyx segments adnate to the calyx. Calyx without white arachnoid tomentum. Beth epicalyx and calyx fleshy3
+ Entire plant prickly. Epicalyx segments not adnate to the calyx. Calyx with a white arachnoid tomentum Hibiscus sabdariffa
4 (2) Staminal column longer than petals, antheriferous in the upper half (5)
+ Staminal column shorter than petals, antheri ferous throughout (6)
5 (4) Epicalyx segments 0.5-2 cm long. Pedicel 4-8 cm long. Petals ± entire. Staminal column slightly longer than petals Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
+ Epicalyx segments 1-2 mm long. Pedicel 8-16 cm long. Petals lanciniate. Staminal column much longer than petals Hibiscus schizopetalus
6 (4) Epicalyx segments present, conspicuous (7)
+ Epicalyx segments absent or very small (inconspicuous) Hibiscus lobatus
7 (6) Calyx inflated (8)
+ Calyx not inflated (9)
8 (7) Shrubs. Leaves 5-7 angular or lobed. Flowers changing in colour. Corolla 5-8 cm across. Seeds dorsally wooly Hibiscus mutabilis
+ Herbs. Leaves 3-5-partite. Flowers not changing in colour. Corolla 1.5-3 cm across. Seeds tuberculate Hibiscus trionum
9 (7) Seeds glabrous or scaly (10)
+ Seeds cottony or tomentose (11)
10 (9) Epicalyx segments 1.5-3.5 cm long, needle like, radiate. Flowers 3-5.5 cm across Hibiscus caesius
+ Epicalyx segments 5-8 mm long, not needle like, appressed or finally reflexed. Flowers ±1.5 cm across Hibiscus obtusilobus
11 (9) Seeds cottony (12)
+ Seeds tomentose (15)
12 (11) Flowers 3-5 cm across. Staminal column 1.5-3 cm long. (cultivated) (13)
+ Flowers 1.5-2 cm across. Staminal column 0.5-1 cm long (wild) (14)
13 (12) Nearly glabrous, large shrubs. Pedicel shorter than the appertaining petiole. Leaves without gland Hibiscus syriacus
+ Stellate pubescent undershrub or shrub. Pedicel much longer than the appertaining petiole. Leaves with a gland on the midrib beneath Hibiscus pedunculatus
14 (12) Leaves obovate, subsessile. Branches spinescent at the nodes
+ Leaves not obovate, petiolate, at least the older ones. Branches not spinescent at nodes Hibiscus micranthus
15 (11) Perennial herb or shrub. Leaves angular. Epicalyx segments 5, broad elliptic. Fruit 10-20 mm across
+ Annual herb. Leaves 3-7-partite. Epicalyx segments 7-10, linear. Fruit 6-7 mm across Hibiscus aristivalvis

Lower Taxa
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