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Published In: Genera Plantarum 322–323. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 4/2/2012)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 4/9/2012)
Contributor Text:


Contributor Institution:

Don McNair Herbarium, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW-2308, Australia

E-mails:abdul.ghafour@newcastle.edu.au; artemisiella89@gmail.com


A large family of c. 133 genera and approximately 5500 species, mainly distributed in southern hemisphere and New World tropics and warm temperate regions. In Pakistan, it is represented by 7 genera and 26 species which are mostly introduced and cultivated in gardens or roadsides and for afforestation.


We are grateful to Mr. Alan Fairley and Mr. Philippe Moore (Sydney, Australia) for providing digital images and permission to reproduce 8 photographs of Eucalyptus species, out of their book “Plants of Sydney Region” and for help in identification of some Eucalyptus taxa. Thanks are due to Mr. Tony Bean (BRI), who kindly confirmed identification of some Eucalyptus species. Help extended by Dr. Sher Wali Khan (Karakoram University, Gilgit) and Dr. Jan Alam (Hazara University, Mansehra) is much appreciated. The financial assistance received from Higher Education Commission under Pak-US Science and Technology Cooperation Programme is thankfully acknowledged. Grateful thanks are due to Prof. Dr. M. Qaiser, Vice-Chancellor, University of Karachi and Prof. Dr. Anjum Parveen, Director, Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi for providing working facilities to the project and for their understanding and encouragement.


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Mostly evergreen trees or shrubs with oil glands in leaves and often in other parts, rarely herbaceous. Leaves simple, entire or occasionally crenate, ciliate or laciniate, alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, usually exstipulate. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, of single flowers or variously grouped into simple or compound panicle (conflorescence) or dichasial cymes, corymbs or glomerules. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual by abortion, perigynous or epigynous, actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic, usually with 2 bracteoles at the base, receptacle ± hollow and united to gynoecium to form hypanthium. Sepals (4-) 5 (-10), free and imbricate or fused to form an operculum or calyptra, deciduous as a lid. Petals 4-5, free or fused into a calyptra (lid) in bud, greenish-white, cream-colored or pink to deep red, imbricate, sometimes reduced or absent. Stamens (4-) 5, 10 or numerous, epigynous around thickened disc, uni- to multiseriate, free or connate at base into bundles, filaments usually inflexed, anthers mostly short, basifixed to versatile, bilocular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or pores, connective often gland-tipped, staminodes occasionally present. Ovary superior to inferior, (1-) 10-loculed, ovules anatropous or campylotropous, 2 to numerous in each locule on axile or rarely parietal placenta; style simple, terminal, elongate; stigma capitate or peltate. Fruit a fleshy berry or drupe or a loculicidally dehiscent capsule with exserted, level or enclosed (inwardly directed)` valves. Seeds with little or no endosperm.


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Fruit a dry capsule immersed in hardened hypanthium.
Fruits fleshy, few- or many-seeded berry.
Inflorescence usually terminal and many-flowered raceme or panicle. Seeds relatively large > 1.0 cm.
3. Syzygium
Inflorescence axillary, 1- or few-flowered. Seeds usually small, solitary or more per fruit.
Flowers in spikes at or near shoot apices. Calyx lobes and petals distinct, deciduous. Leaves narrow, directed upwards.
Flowers in sessile or pedunculate axillary umbels or compound, terminal or axillary panicle of umbels. Calyx lobes and petals fused into a calyptra or                 operculum, deciduous at anthesis.
Flowers c. 2 cm across. Leaves 1 – 4 cm long. Ovary 2-3-loculed. Mature fruits 5 – 6 mm wide.
1. Myrtus
Flowers 3 – 4 cm across. Leaves 5 – 10 cm long. Ovary usually 4-5-loculed. Mature fruits more than 2 cm wide.
2. Psidium
Stamens creamy-white, united into 5 bundles opposite the petals.
4. Melaleuca
Stamens red to pink or pale, free or shortly connate at the base but not united into bundles.
5. Callistemon
Flowers in terminal or axillary compound panicle of umbels. Stamens inflexed, with
oblong and versatile anthers dehiscing by
parallel slits. Disc steeply depressed in fruit.
6. Corymbia
Flowers in simple, sessile or pedunculate axillary umbels. Stamens not as above. Disc not steeply depressed
7. Eucalyptus

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