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Published In: Genera Plantarum 143–144. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: Department of Botany, University of Karachi.
General/Distribution: A family of 300 genera and nearly 2000 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, represented in Pakistan by 6 native genera (with 6 species) and 13 cultivated genera (with 20 species).
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to Mr. I. C. Hedge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, for going through the manuscript.


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Trees, shrubs or twiners, sometimes herbs, with milky juice. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate or spiral, simple, entire, sometimes glandular on the entire midrib or at the base of the .midrib, stipulate or exstipulate. Inflorescence axillary or of terminal dichasial cymes or racemes. Flowers bisexual, regular, bracteate or apparently ebracteate. Calyx- (4-) 5 lobed, sometimes polysepalous, lobes equal or unequal, imbricate, often glandular inside at the base, corolla (4-) 5 lobed, hypogynous, rotate, salver-form or campanulate, valvate or twisted in bud; sometimes corona appendages present; stamens (4-) 5, usually inserted on the base of corolla tube, included or exserted; filament very short or absent; anther occasionally connivent with stigma; pollen sometimes in tetrads. Pistil one, basically composed of 2 carpels-free or syncarpous, terminating into single stigma, superior or subinferior, mostly unilocular or bilocular with parietal placentation, rarely bilocular with axile placentation, ovules one to many; style simple or divided at base, stigma large and of various types, mostly umbraculiform below and capitate or pentagonal above. Fruit a fleshy or dry drupe, berry, samara or follicles. Seeds 1 to many, pubescent, winged or apically comose.

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1 Corona present (2)
+ Corona absent (4)
2 (1) Leaves whorled or opposite; anthers ± exserted (3)
+ Leaves spiral or alternate; anthers included 14 Thevetia
3 (2) Corona scale-like 19 Wrightia
+ Corona petaloid 10 Nerium
4 (1) Anthers connivent with stigma (5)
+ Anthers not connivent with stigma (9)
5 (4) Erect or climbing shrub or tree; stigma not 2-lobed, columnar or fusiform (6)
+ Erect perennial herb or under-shrub; stigma 2-lobed, columnar or sub-globose 16 Trachomitum
6 (5) Flowers in terminal axillary cymes (7)
+ Flowers in various types of racemes 17 Vallaris
7 (6) Corolla rotate or salver-form; stigma columnar (8)
+ Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped; stigma fusiform 4 Beaumontia
8 (7) Corolla lobes obliquely truncate; tube inflated at the top; seeds not beaked.(cultivated) 15 Trachelospermum
+ Corolla lobes deflexed; tube inflated in the centre; seeds beaked. (wild) 8 Ichnocarpus
9 (4) Fruit a follicle, or capsule (12)
+ Fruit a berry-like drupe (10)
10 (9) Disc absent (11)
+ Disc present 12 Rauvolfia
11 (10) Calyx 5-lobed; stigma fusiform or columnar 5 Carissa
+ Calyx polysepalous; stigma 2-lobed, pointed 1 Acokanthera
12 (9) Herb or under-shrub (13)
+ Tree or large shrub (14)
13 (12) Corolla salverform; flowers 1-3 in the leaf axils 9 Catharanthus
+ Corolla infundibuliform; flower 1 in the leaf axils 18 Vinca
14 (12) Seed winged (15)
+ Seed not winged (17)
15 (14) Calyx eglandular on both sides (16)
+ Calyx glandular outside, eglandular inside 11 Plumeria
16 (15) Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped. Fruit a capsule. (Plants cultivated) 2 Allamanda
+ Corolla salverform. Fruit a follicle (Plants wild.) 13 Rhazya
17 (14) Leaves opposite; calyx glandular inside (18)
+ Leaves whorled; calyx eglandular inside 3 Alstonia
18 (17) Stamen inserted at or above the middle of the tube; corolla throat not contracted, inflated in the middle or top 6 Ervatamia
+ Stamen inserted near the base of the tube; corolla throat contracted 7 Holarrhena