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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 492. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/12/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 5/17/2018)
Contributor Text: R. Borosova & S. Landrein
Contributor Institution: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


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Deciduous or semi-evergreen shrubs, occassionally herbaceous perennials, nearly always with prickles, sometimes glandular, rarely unarmed. Branches usually climbing, creeping or straggling, rarely erect.Leaves alternate,ternately, pinnately or palmately compound or simple, when simple usually lobed, glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles or glands, margins toothed.Stipules persistent or caducous, free or adnate to petiole, usually dissected, occasionally lobed or entire.Inflorescence terminal or axillary panicle, raceme or corymb or rarely flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, usually 5-merous. Bract one, at base of pedicel, bracteoles absent. Hypanthium cupular to saucer shaped. Epicalyx absent. Sepals imbricate, persistent, erect or reflexed, sometimes unequal. Petals white, pink or red, occasionally absent. Stamens numerous or sometimes few, inserted at mouth of hypanthium. Filaments filiform, anthers didymous. Carpels many, rarely few, ovary superior. Ovules 2, descendent, only 1 developing. Style sub-terminal, stigma capitate. Fruit a drupetum (aggregate of drupelets); exocarp black, red, yellow, orange or white; mesocarp juicy or fleshy; endocarp hard. Drupelets falling as a collective unit, with or without the dry torus. Seed with thin testa, rarely with endosperm.

A genus of possibly about 250 species and several thousand microspecies distributed worldwide. Represented in Pakistan by 13 species.


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Perennial herbs, prostrate or creeping, usually unarmed, stipules free (Sect. Cylactis).




1. R. saxatilis




Stems ± woody; usually with robust or needle-like prickles, stipules usually adnate to base of petiole.







Leaves simple, stipules free, margin laciniate above middle, persistent or caducous. Inflorescence a cymose panicle to subraceme, 10-25 cm long (Sect. Malachobatus).





5. R. paniculatus



Leaves compound,stipules adnate to base of petiole, rarely free, undivided, occasionally lobed, persistent. Inflorescence usually shorter.








Leaves usually ternate, aggregate fruit adnate to torus at maturity, not or rarely hollow(Sect. Rubus).







Leaves pinnately or palmately compound, 3-9 leaflets; aggregate fruit separating from torus at maturity, hollow (Sect. Idaeobatus).








Leaves abaxially glabrescent or puberulous along veins, sepals usually erect at anthesis, petals white, drupelets 2-20, ca. 5 mm in diameter, with white bloom                                               






2. R. caesius



Leaves abaxially densely white tomentose, sepals recurved at anthesis, petals pink or purplish, rarely white, drupelets numerous, 2-3 mm in diameter, without white bloom.

Leaves abaxially white tomentose, sepals often recurved at anthesis, petals pale pink, rarely white.








3. R. sanctus agg.

4. Rubus karakalensis (R. sanctus x R. caesius)



Leaves mostly ternate with 3(-5) leaflets.





Leaves mostly pinnate with (3-)5-9 leaflets.






Leaves ternate, blades elliptic-obovate to suborbicular, not lobed, abaxially densely tomentose,inflorescence a dense glomerate raceme, 2-5 cm long, rarely flowers solitary, drupelets yellow.






6. R. ellipticus



Leaves ternate, rarely simple or pinnate with 5 leaflets, blades ovate to lanceolate, if suborbicular then 3-lobed, abaxially glabrous or densely white tomentose, rarely pubescent, flowers single or inflorescence shortly racemose, corymbose, rarely paniculate, 2-15 flowered, drupelets yellow to red or black.










Leaves abaxially usually glabrous, rarely pubescent, terminal leaflet lanceolate.



7. R. macilentus



Leaves abaxially white hairy, terminal leaflet ovate, broadly ovate or suborbicular.






Stem, leaves and calyx densely bristly, sepals 8-16 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, apex usually long caudate, drupelets red                                                                                

8. R. irritans



Stem, leaves and calyx with prickles or unarmed, sepals 5-15 mm long, broadly ovate or ovate to lanceolate, apex acute, acuminate to caudate, drupeletsorange-yellow or red to black.    








Branches, pedicels, bracts and stipules with stalked glands.



9. R. hoffmeisterianus



Branches with prickles or bristles,eglandular.







Sepals lanceolate, apex long acuminate to caudate, densely pubescent on both surfaces, 0.7-1.2 cm long, petals pink or red                                                                



10. R. pedunculosus




Sepals ovate to broadly ovate, apex acute, abaxially glabrous, 0.6-0.8(-0.9) cm long, petals white.




11. R. biflorus




Leaflets abaxially sparsely pubescent, mainly along veins, flowers solitary or in 2-4-flowered corymbs, petals white or pink,sepals (0.6-)0.8-1.2(-2) cm long,abaxially pubescent and with prickles 





12.R. pungens




Leaflets abaxially white velutinous, flowers up to 25 in 4-6 cm long corymb, petals reddish pink,sepalsless than 0.5-0.8cm long, abaxially densely pubescent, without prickles.  






13. R. niveus


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